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Bangun Nusa Mandiri palm oil plantation in Jelai Hulu, Ketapang district, Indonesia

Indigenous communities of Silat Hulu see their livelihoods threatened by the establishment of a oil palm plantation of Golden Agri-Resources.


Owned by the palm oil giant GAR, PT Bangun Nusa -PT BNM- Mandiri started operating in Ketapang district in 2008. In the Environmental Impact Assessment carried out prior to its establishment, many potential damages are listed, such as the transformation of natural landscape, water and air degradation, risk of fires, soil erosion, local fauna and flora disturbance, sanitation problem and land disputes. There is no reference to the impact that palm oil plantations will have on food security and traditional livelihoods.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Bangun Nusa Mandiri palm oil plantation in Jelai Hulu, Ketapang district, Indonesia
State or province:West Kalimantan
Location of conflict:Ketapang
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture, Fisheries and Livestock Management)
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Deforestation
Land acquisition conflicts
Water treatment and access to sanitation (access to sewage)
Specific commodities:Land
Palm oil
Project Details and Actors
Project details

Before the biofuel boom took place, not more than 3% of land in Ketapang district (i.e. 100,000ha) was used for growing oil palm. In 2005, 742,000 ha were covered by oil palm, and 2 years later, 1,4 million ha, representing 40% of Ketapang’s land area.

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Project area:20,000
Type of populationRural
Affected Population:around 15,000
Start of the conflict:01/04/2008
Company names or state enterprises:Golden Agri Resources (GAR) from Singapore
Asia Pulp & Paper (APP) from Indonesia
PT Bangun Nusa Mandiri (PT BNM) from Indonesia
Relevant government actors:Ketapang government
Indonesian Constitutional Court
National Land Agency Office and Plantations Office of Ketapang District
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Public Interest Lawyer Network Indonesia (PILNET)
Forest Peoples Programme
TuK Indonesia
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityMEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Local ejos
Forms of mobilization:Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Objections to the EIA
Street protest/marches
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality
Potential: Global warming
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession
Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Criminalization of activists
Court decision (undecided)
Proposal and development of alternatives:The local communities are asking for: mitigation of land clearing impacts on water resources, provision of promised facilities and infrastructures, proper information sharing, socialization of the meaning and purpose of High Conservation Value Areas, resolution of any ongoing land disputes, implementation of the accorded plassma scheme, and accessibility to all relevant documents by the community.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Not Sure
Briefly explain:Despite compensation was paid to communities in Silat Hulu in 2009 to make up for all the losses, there are other conflicts ongoing within PT BNM concession.
Sources & Materials
References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

[1] Jiwan, et al. 2013 “PT Bangun Nusa Mandiri and the Dayak Jelai and Dayak Kendawangan peoples of Ketapang district, West Kalimantan” In: Consent or conflict? The oil palm at a crossroads. Ch6
[click to view]

[2]“Konflik Perkebunan Sawit Meluas, RSPO Dituntut Segera Kembali ke Khittah” by Mongabay Indonesia
[click to view]

[3] “Sustainability without human rights respect and victims justice is meaningless” by Elsam (Institute for Policy Research and Advocacy)
[click to view]

”Caplok Lahan Adat, Penegak Hukum Harus Usut PT Sinarmas” by Nusantaranews
[click to view]

“Bedah Kasus ‘Kriminalisasi Masyarakat Adat dan Hukum Adat’ Pembelajaran dari Kasus Silat Hulu, Ketapang” by Suara Komunitas
[click to view]

“Kotak Pandora di Konsesi Sinar Mas Grup Kalbar” by Mongabay Indonesia
[click to view]

“Hukuman untuk SMART, Pelajaran bagi Pembuat Kebijakan” by Walhi West Borneo
[click to view]

“Siaran Pers: Keberlanjutan Takkan Berarti Bila Menegasikan Penghormatan terhadap HAM dan Keadilan Korban” by TuK Indonesia
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Clàudia Custòdio
Last update18/08/2019
Conflict ID:2687
Legal notice / Aviso legal
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