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Eucalyptus Monoculture in Eunapolis, Bahia, Brazil


Veracel Celulose is a joint venture formed by Brazilian company Fibria (50%) and the Swedish-Finnish Stora Enso. Since 2005, this company produces about 1 million tons of bleached wood pulp per year at its plant in the municipality of Eunapolis, Bahia.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Eucalyptus Monoculture in Eunapolis, Bahia, Brazil
State or province:Bahia
Location of conflict:Eunapolis, Belmonte, Santa Cruz Cabralia e Porto Seguro
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture, Fisheries and Livestock Management)
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Plantation conflicts (incl. Pulp
Specific commodities:Eucalyptus
Project Details and Actors
Project details

Project area:96000
Level of Investment:1000000000
Type of populationUrban
Start of the conflict:2005
Company names or state enterprises:Veracel from Brazil
Stora Enso from Sweden
Fibria from Brazil
Relevant government actors:Fundacao Nacional do Indio - FUNAI, Ministerio Publico Federal - MPF, Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis - IBAMA, Centro de Recursos Ambientais - CRA, Instituto de Meio Ambiente - IMA, Conselho Estadual de Proteo Ambiental - CEPRAM
International and Finance InstitutionsBanco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES) from Brazil
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas para o Desenvolvimento do Extremo Sul da Bahia - CEPEDES, Rede Brasileira de Justia Ambiental - RBJA, Frente de Resistencia e Luta Pataxo, Friends of the Earth - FOE
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityMEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
Reaction stageMobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Industrial workers
International ejos
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Social movements
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of mobilization:Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Objections to the EIA
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Soil contamination, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality
Potential: Desertification/Drought, Genetic contamination, Global warming, Soil erosion, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsVisible: Malnutrition
Potential: Accidents, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..), Occupational disease and accidents, Infectious diseases, Deaths
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession
Potential: Increase in violence and crime, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Corruption
Environmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area
Court decision (victory for environmental justice)
Strengthening of participation
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:The project is still running and the environmental and social impacts have increased.
Sources & Materials
References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

Acesso em: 17 nov. 2008.

Violacoes socioambientais promovidas pela Veracel Celulose, propriedade da pela Stora Enzo e a Aracruz Celulose WRM, set. 2008. Disponivel em:
[click to view]

ECODEBATE. Veracel Celulose e condenada na justica por desmatar Mata Atlantica (20/08/2009). Disponivel em:
[click to view]

AGENCIA CARTA MAIOR. Armas judiciais contra fabricas de papel no Brasil. Disponivel em:
[click to view]

Disponivel em:
[click to view]

Acesso em: 17 nov. 2008.

MINISTERIO PUBLICO FEDERAL. MPF/BA: Veracel E condenada a pagar R$ 20 milhoes por desmatamento.

ADITAL. Monocultura do eucalipto causa danos ao extremo sul da Bahia. Disponivel em:
[click to view]

Acesso em: 17 nov.2008 .

Meta information
Contributor:Diogo Rocha
Last update18/08/2019
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