Eucalyptus Monoculture in Eunapolis, Bahia, Brazil


Veracel Celulose is a joint venture formed by Brazilian company Fibria (50%) and the Swedish-Finnish Stora Enso. Since 2005, this company produces about 1 million tons of bleached wood pulp per year at its plant in the municipality of Eunapolis, Bahia.

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Basic Data
NameEucalyptus Monoculture in Eunapolis, Bahia, Brazil
SiteEunapolis, Belmonte, Santa Cruz Cabralia e Porto Seguro
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture, Fisheries and Livestock Management)
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Deforestation
Plantation conflicts (incl. Pulp
Specific Commodities
Project Details and Actors
Project Area (in hectares)96000
Level of Investment (in USD)1000000000
Type of PopulationUrban
Start Date2005
Company Names or State EnterprisesVeracel from Brazil
Stora Enso from Sweden
Fibria from Brazil
Relevant government actorsFundacao Nacional do Indio - FUNAI, Ministerio Publico Federal - MPF, Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis - IBAMA, Centro de Recursos Ambientais - CRA, Instituto de Meio Ambiente - IMA, Conselho Estadual de Proteo Ambiental - CEPRAM
International and Financial InstitutionsBanco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES) from Brazil
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersCentro de Estudos e Pesquisas para o Desenvolvimento do Extremo Sul da Bahia - CEPEDES, Rede Brasileira de Justia Ambiental - RBJA, Frente de Resistencia e Luta Pataxo, Friends of the Earth - FOE
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginMobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Industrial workers
International ejos
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Social movements
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of MobilizationCommunity-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Objections to the EIA
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Soil contamination, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality
Potential: Desertification/Drought, Genetic contamination, Global warming, Soil erosion, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsVisible: Malnutrition
Potential: Accidents, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..) , Occupational disease and accidents, Infectious diseases, Deaths
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession
Potential: Increase in violence and crime, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCorruption
Environmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area
Court decision (victory for environmental justice)
Strengthening of participation
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.The project is still running and the environmental and social impacts have increased.
Sources and Materials

Violacoes socioambientais promovidas pela Veracel Celulose, propriedade da pela Stora Enzo e a Aracruz Celulose WRM, set. 2008. Disponivel em:
[click to view]

Acesso em: 17 nov. 2008.


ADITAL. Monocultura do eucalipto causa danos ao extremo sul da Bahia. Disponivel em:
[click to view]

AGENCIA CARTA MAIOR. Armas judiciais contra fabricas de papel no Brasil. Disponivel em:
[click to view]

ECODEBATE. Veracel Celulose e condenada na justica por desmatar Mata Atlantica (20/08/2009). Disponivel em:
[click to view]

Disponivel em:
[click to view]

Acesso em: 17 nov.2008.

Acesso em: 17 nov.2008 .

Acesso em: 17 nov. 2008.

MINISTERIO PUBLICO FEDERAL. MPF/BA: Veracel E condenada a pagar R$ 20 milhoes por desmatamento.

Acesso em: 17 nov.2008.

Meta Information
ContributorDiogo Rocha
Last update08/04/2014