Extension of Tucuruí transmission line to Roraima, Brazil

A new government decree is advancing the start of construction of an electrical transmission line between Boa Vista and Manaus, crossing through the indigenous reserve of the Waimiri Atroari, who have been opposing the project but were not consulted.


Description

In the beginning of 2019, Brazil’s new government announced the construction start of an electrical transmission line from Manaus to Boa Vista, as an extension of the existing Tucuruí transmission line. It would connect the isolated state of Roraima to the Brazilian energy grid, following the same corridor as the BR-174, including about 125 kilometers running through the territory of the Waimiri Atroari. The line had been proposed since the controversial constructions of BR-174 highway in the 1970s but it was especially pushed forward in the last decade. It has however faced opposition from the Waimiri Atroari group as well as regional politicians and non-government organizations. Looking back on a long history of violent conflict and ‘development’ interventions (see also related cases of the BR-174 construction, the Pitinga mine and the Balbina hydroelectric dam in the EJAtlas), leading to the group’s almost-extinction in the 1980s and an ongoing struggle for basic rights, the Waimiri Atroari (self-denomination: Kinja) today consists of 31 villages with a total number of 1,600 – 2,000 people.

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Basic Data
NameExtension of Tucuruí transmission line to Roraima, Brazil
CountryBrazil
ProvinceAmazonas - Roraima
SiteWaimiri Atroari Indigenous Territory - Rorainópolis
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Land acquisition conflicts
Deforestation
Specific CommoditiesElectricity
Land
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsTransnorte Energia S.A., a consortium between the companies Alupar (51%) and Eletronorte (49%), holds the concession for the transmission line since 2011 and was controversially granted a preliminary environmental license for the construction in 2015 . The section of the line would have a capacity of 500 KW and a total length of 721km. It would connect Roraima to Brazil’s central energy grid and thereby extend the existing Tucuruí transmission line. Extending over 1,800 kilometers, it leads from Pará to Manaus, Amazonas, and supplies homes and industries in the Northern Amazon region – particularly Vale’s aluminum industries in Pará and the Polo Industrial in Manaus – with hydroelectricity from Tucuruí, Brazil’s first mega dam.

According to a previous environmental impact assessment issued in 2014, the route along the BR-174 was considered the least environmentally harmful one among several evaluated options, but completely failed to take the indigenous component into account. 125 kilometers would run through the Terra Indígena Waimiri Atroari, which encompasses a total area of 2,585,910 hectares shared between the states of Amazonas and Roraima and also used to be home to a minority of isolated Piriutiti tribes. [1] [2] [3][6][10]

Estimated investment sum: R$ 1,062 billion [3]

Currently, Roraima receives 70 percent of its power from the Guri hydroelectric dam in Venezuela and faces regular power cuts. [9]
Level of Investment (in USD)268,372,710
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population1,600 - 2,000
Start Date2011
Company Names or State EnterprisesTransnorte Energia (TNE) from Brazil - holds the concession for the transmission line
Relevant government actorsFUNAI

MPF

IBAMA

Federal and regional governments

National Defense Council

National Electrical Energy Agency (Aneel)
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersAssociação Waimiri-Atroari https://www.waimiriatroari.org.br/

Supporters:

Coordination of the Indigenous Organizations of the Brazilian Amazon https://web.archive.org/web/20100206194252/http://www.coiab.com.br/

Conselho Regional Indígena de Roraima (CIR)

Comissão de Meio Ambiente

Comissão de Minas e Energia e os Direitos Humanos
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingIndigenous groups or traditional communities
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Ethnically/racially discriminated groups
Forms of MobilizationBlockades
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Official complaint letters and petitions
Official complaint letters and petitions
Street protest/marches
Refusal of compensation
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover
Health ImpactsPotential: Accidents, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Infectious diseases, Other Health impacts, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide
OtherHigher risk of cancer
Socio-economic ImpactsPotential: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Outcome
Project StatusPlanned (decision to go ahead eg EIA undertaken, etc)
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCompensation
Court decision (undecided)
New legislation
Under negotiation
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
Project temporarily suspended
Development of AlternativesAs an alternative to the transmission line, the state of Roraima had been examining wind and solar power projects. While these would avoid the controversial crossing of indigenous livelihoods and presumable ecological conflicts, viability studies have also shown that these alternative plans would result cheaper. [9] [10]
Do you consider this as a success?Not Sure
Why? Explain briefly.The Waimiri Atroari community is again confronted with interventions into its livelihood and the violation of basic rights. Studies have shown the probable socio-environmental damages of the project, while alternative energy models have so far been omitted. With the transmission line, the state of Roraima would receive its energy supply from one of the world’s largest and most controversial hydroelectric projects, the Tucuruí dam in Pará.
Sources and Materials
Legislations

ILO Convention 169 on the rights of tribal people
[click to view]

Links

2. Duailibi, J. (2019): Licenças para linhão de Tucuruí devem sair até maio. G1 Globo, 22.02.2019. Online, last access: 18.04.2019.
[click to view]

3. Solidaridade Ibero-amaericana (2015): Linhão de Tucuruí: “Estado está impedindo o Estado de cumprir com suas obrigações legais”. 23.09.2015. Online, last access: 18.04.2019.
[click to view]

6. Portal Amazônia Real (2016): Justiça suspende licença prévia do Linhão de Tucuruí até consulta à indígenas. 02.03.2016. Online, last access: 18.04.2019.
[click to view]

7. Toledo, M. (2018): Índios liberam estudo para linha de transmissão que corta terra vaimiri-atroari. Folha de S. Paulo, 16.03.2018. Online, last access: 18.04.2019.
[click to view]

9. Rocha, J. (2019): Brazil to build long-resisted Amazon transmission line on indigenous land. Mongabay, 13.03.2019. Online, last access: 18.04.2019.
[click to view]

1. Trajano, A. (2016): Waimiri Atroari não autorizam linhão de Tucuruí em suas terras. Amazônia Real, 07.01.2016. Online, last access: 18.04.2019.
[click to view]

5. Farias, E. (2019): MPF vai questionar na Justiça decisão que torna Linhão do Tucuruí questão de “Interesse Nacional”. Portal Amazônia Real, 01.03.2019. Online, last access: 18.04.2019.
[click to view]

8. Branford, S. (2017): A stubborn dreamer who fought to save Amazon’s Waimiri-Atroari passes. Mongabay, 18.05.2017. Online, last access: 18.04.2019.
[click to view]

10. Santos, I. (2019): Para Joênia Wapichana, “alternativas limpas e renováveis” podem substituir o linhão de Tucuruí. Portal Amazônia Real, 26.03.2019. Online, last access: 18.04.2019.
[click to view]

12. Carvalho, P. (2019): Indígenas bloqueiam trecho da BR-174. Folha de Boa Vista, 01.04.2019. Online, last access: 18.04.2019.
[click to view]

4. Marques, M. (2015): Senador de RR diz que 'interesses obscuros' atrasam obras de Tucuruí. G1 Globo, 20.03.2015. Online, last access: 18.04.2019.
[click to view]

11. COIAB (2019): Apoio ao povo Kinja (Waimiri-Atroari). 01.03.2019. Online, last access: 18.04.2019.
[click to view]

Other Documents

Politician Joênia Wapichana speaking out against the transmission line at a regional energy forum Source: Amazonia Real (© Alberto César Araujó)
[click to view]

The regional indigenous movement blocking the BR-174 in Roraima, April 2019 Source: Folha de Boa Vista
[click to view]

Stopped construction works of the Tucuruí line extension (Source: Folha de Boa Vista)
[click to view]

Kinja community members at the BR-174 road (Source: Solidaridade Ibero-Americana, msiainforma.org )
[click to view]

A tower of the existing Tucuruí transmission line section in Amazonas (Source: Revista Planeta Online)
[click to view]

Existing transmission lines and the planned Roraima extension of the Tucuruí line (Source: Notícia Plus; Graphic by Eletronorte)
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorENVJustice Project (MS)
Last update13/05/2019
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