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Fisherfolk against reclamations in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

The north bay of Jakarta has been a source of livelihood for the fisherfolk around the area. Reclamation plans have caused the loss of livelihood for them. This is related to the Giant Sea Wall, or National Capital Integrated Coastal Development.


The plan to conduct reclamation in the bay of Jakarta has been around since 1995. The reclamation of 2,700 hectares was proposed as a solution to overcome the scarcity of land in Jakarta during Soeharto’s regime [6]. At that time, it could not be put into action since the plan contradicted the ruling land use planning in Jakarta (Rencana Umum Tata Ruang Jakarta 1985-2005), even when the then president had issued Presidential Decree No. 52/1995. It also faced strong opposition from environmental activists [1].

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Fisherfolk against reclamations in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia
State or province:Jakarta
Location of conflict:North Jakarta
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Urban development conflicts
Wetlands and coastal zone management
Specific commodities:Land
Sand, gravel
Tourism services
Project Details and Actors
Project details

On September 2018, the Jakarta governor revoked the permit to develop 13 islets with a total land area of 3,962 hectares (while the developed four islets are 1,093 hectares) [7]. Meanwhile, there were three other islets, which were already developed with infrastructures, to be managed by PT Jakarta Propertindo as appointed by the Jakarta government [4]. The permit of these three islets was not revoked as the infrastructures would be used as public space and owned by the government of Jakarta [3, 5]. Then, the name of these islets has been changed to Kawasan Pantai Kita (used to be Islet C), Kawasan Pantai Maju (Islet D), Kawasan Pantai Bersama (Islet G).

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Project area:3,962
Level of Investment for the conflictive projectN/A
Type of populationSemi-urban
Affected Population:9,608,000
Start of the conflict:01/01/1995
Company names or state enterprises:PT KEK Marunda Jakarta from Indonesia - Developer of Island P and Q
PT Pelindo II from Indonesia - Developer of Island N
PT Jakarta Propertindo (Jakpro) from Indonesia - Developer of Island F, G, and O
PT Taman Harapan Indah from Indonesia - Developer of Island H
PT Muara Wisesa Samudra (MWS) from Indonesia - Developer of Island G
PT Kapuk Naga Indah (KNI) from Indonesia - Developer of Island A, B, C, D, and E
PT Pembangunan Jaya Ancol from Indonesia - Developer of Island I, J, K, and L
PT Jaladri Kartika Paksi from Indonesia - Developer of Island I
PT Manggala Krida Yudha from Indonesia - Developer of Island M and L
PT Agung Podomoro Land (APL) from Indonesia - Parent company of PT Muara Wisesa Samudera
Royal Haskoning DHV from Netherlands - Involved in the design of Islet G, Islet F, and Islet N
Witeven + Bos from Netherlands - Involved in the design of Islands C, D and E.
Boskalis International from Netherlands - It is a reclamation contractor whose services are used by PT Agung Podomoro Land Tbk (APLN) through PT Muara Wisesa Samudera as the holder of the G. Island reclamation permit
Relevant government actors:Jakarta City Councilor
State Administrative High Court (PTUN)
Forestry Minister
Governor of Jakarta
Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Ministry
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Coalition for Saving Jakarta Bay (KSTJ)
Solidaritas Perempuan (SP)
The People's Coalition for Fisheries Justice (KIARA)
Indonesian Traditional Fishermen Union (KNTI)
Indonesian Forum for the Environment (Walhi)
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:Local ejos
Local government/political parties
National government
Fisher people
Forms of mobilization:Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Objections to the EIA
Official complaint letters and petitions
Street protest/marches
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil erosion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality
Potential: Desertification/Drought, Food insecurity (crop damage), Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Other Environmental impactsspecies migrations
Health ImpactsPotential: Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Land dispossession
Potential: Violations of human rights, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusUnder construction
Conflict outcome / response:Court decision (victory for environmental justice)
Proposal and development of alternatives:During his campaign to be Jakarta governor, Anies Baswedan gained support from KNTI (Kesatuan Nelayan Tradisional Indonesia, or the Indonesian Traditional Fishermen group) as they remembered that he would stop the Jakarta Bay reclamation. Thus, the public expected that he would disassemble the islets alongside of the buildings which had been erected - which is what an non-governmental organization, called LIMA (Lingkaran Madani) focusing on election monitoring, mentioned in response to Baswedan's Building Construction Permit publication.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:It seems that one of the stakeholders, the fisherfolk, is being left out in the decision making process as the Building Construction Permit was released in June 2019 for Islets D. The fisherfolk felt that they were not being taken into consideration and this reclamation is purely for business.
Sources & Materials
Juridical relevant texts related to the conflict (laws, legislations, EIAs, etc)

Law No. 8/1995 on reclamation

Presidential Decree No. 52/1995 on the reclamation of Jakarta's northern coastal areas.

Governor Regulation of Special Province Jakarta Capital City No. 206/2016
[click to view]

Law No. 27/2007 on Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

Priambodo, Bodo Budi (2009). Preserve of Perish. A Scenario Analysis on the Future of Small-Scale Fishery in Jakarta Bay. Master Thesis. Maastricht Graduate School of Governance. University of Maastricht
[click to view]

Batubara B , Kooy M, Zwarteveen M . 2018. Uneven Urbanisation: Connecting Flows of Water to Flows of Labour and Capital Through Jakarta's Flood Infrastructure. Antipode 50 (5): 1186-1205
[click to view]

Octavianti, Thanti and Charles, Katrina. 2018. Disaster Capitalism? Examining the Politicisation of Land Subsidence Crisis in Pushing Jakarta’s Seawall Megaproject. Water Alternatives 11(2): 394-420
[click to view]

[1] Fishermen politicized to oppose reclamation project: Ahok. December 5, 2015. The Jakarta Post (accessed on 06.02.2019.)
[click to view]

[2] Jakarta administration, developer win Islet G appeal. October 21, 2016. The Jakarta Post (accessed on 06.02.2019.)
[click to view]

[3] 7 Fakta Seputar Penghentian Proyek Reklamasi di Teluk Jakarta. September 27, 2018. (accessed on 06.02.2019.)
[click to view]

[4] Segel Dicopot, Kendaraan Roda 4 Lalu Lalang di Pulau Reklamasi. December 3, 2018. (accessed on 06.02.2019.)
[click to view]

[5] Reklamasi 13 pulau di Teluk Jakarta dibatalkan Gubernur Anies Baswedan: Yang harus Anda ketahui. September 27, 2018. BBC (accessed on 06.02.2019.)
[click to view]

[6] Jalan Panjang Reklamasi di Teluk Jakarta, dari era Soeharto sampai Ahok. April 4, 2016. (accessed on 06.02.2019.)
[click to view]

[7] Perjalanan Panjang Reklamasi Jakarta. Kompas (accessed on 06.02.2019.)
[click to view]

[8] Kajian Tanggul Laut Libatkan Ahli dari Belanda, Korea dan Jepang. December 11, 2018. (accessed on 06.02.2019.)
[click to view]

[9] Tanggul Raksasa Disiapkan. December 12, 2011. (accessed on 06.02.2019.)
[click to view]

[10] Jakartans question land reclamation. October 23, 2015. The Jakarta Post (accessed on 06.02.2019.)
[click to view]

[11] Reklamasi Teluk Jakarta Lanjut. Kementerian LHK: Sempurnakan Dulu Dokumen Lingkungan. September 14, 2016. Mongabay (accessed on 06.02.2019.)
[click to view]

[12] Reklamasi Teluk Jakarta Lanjut. Kementerian LHK: Sempurnakan Dulu Dokumen Lingkungan. September 14, 2016. Mongabay (accessed on 06.02.2019.)
[click to view]

[13] Agung Podomoro Pastikan Reklamasi Pluit Dimulai Akhir 2015. September 18, 2015. CNN Indonesia (accessed on 06.02.2019.)
[click to view]

[14] Ini Asal-usul Pasir dan Tanah untuk Reklamasi di Teluk Jakarta. April 7, 2016. (accessed on 06.02.2019.)
[click to view]

[15] Mengintip Proses Reklamasi di Pulau G. April 7, 2016. (accessed on 06.02.2019.)
[click to view]

[16] Threatened fishermen rally against reclamation project. May 3, 2016. The Jakarta Post (accessed on 14.05.2019)
[click to view]

[17] Jakarta Reclamation Project has Potential to Widen Social Gap. May 13, 2016. (accessed on 14.05.2019)
[click to view]

[18] Fishermen stage protest against eviction to Thousand Islands. January 29, 2016 . The Jakarta Post (accesses on 27.05.19)
[click to view]

[19] Proses reklamasi Teluk Jakarta 'dihentikan sementara'. April 15, 2016. BBC Indonesia (accessed on 14.05.2019)
[click to view]

[19] Solidaritas Perempuan (SP)
[click to view]

[20] Penggugat Pulau G Kerap Mengalami Intimidasi. August 4, 2016. Okenews (accessed on 14.05.2019)
[click to view]

[21] Nelayan dan pegiat desak Belanda hentikan keterlibatan di proyek reklamasi Jakarta. November 23, 2016 (accessed on 14.05.2019)
[click to view]

[22] Perwakilan Massa: Dulu Anies Kampanye Tolak Reklamasi, Ternyata Janji Palsu.... June 24, 2019. (accessed on 07.22.2019.)
[click to view]

[23] Anies: Ketika Pulau Reklamasi Berkembang, Pendapatan Negara Meningkat. July 2, 2019. (accessed on 07.22.2019)
[click to view]

Reklamasi 17 Pulau Terintegrasi dengan NCICD, Bagaimana Nasib Swasta? April 27,2016. (accessed on 27.05.2019)
[click to view]

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

[click to view]

Other comments:(accessed on 06.02.2019.
Meta information
Contributor:Made Sania Saraswati and ICTA-UAB
Last update18/08/2019
Conflict ID:3002
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