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Shrimp Cultivation destroying local livelihood, Bangladesh

Cultivation of saline water shrimp on vast part of coastal area started as an industry since early 80s and reached its boom in the last few years. The sector is an hundred percent export oriented one


Cultivation of saline water shrimp on vast part of coastal area started its journey as an industry in Bangladesh since early 80s and reached its boom in the last few years. The sector is an hundred percent export oriented one. 

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Shrimp Cultivation destroying local livelihood, Bangladesh
State or province:Not applicable
Location of conflict:Bagerhat, Khulna, Noakhali, Shatkhira, Cox's Bazar
Accuracy of locationLOW (Country level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture, Fisheries and Livestock Management)
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Deforestation
Land acquisition conflicts
Aquaculture and fisheries
Specific commodities:Land
Project Details and Actors
Project details

Foreign currency earning from the frozen food sector is 4.23% of the total export earning, shrimp constitutes 80% of the said sector. Again of the total exported shrimp, the larger part comes from the nature as the farm shrimp contributes to about 39%-46%.

Project area:850 hectars plus 1.72 lakh hectars
Type of populationRural
Affected Population:3,000,000
Start of the conflict:22/11/1990
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Bangladesh Environmental Lawyers Association (BELA)
Nijera Kori
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stageMobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Informal workers
International ejos
Local ejos
Fisher people
Forms of mobilization:Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Appeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsVisible: Malnutrition, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..), Deaths
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession
Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Deaths, Assassinations, Murders
Environmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area
Court decision (victory for environmental justice)
New legislation
Application of existing regulations
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Not Sure
Sources & Materials
Juridical relevant texts related to the conflict (laws, legislations, EIAs, etc)

The Embankment and Drainage Act, 1952
[click to view]

The State Acquisition and Tenancy Act, 1950
[click to view]

The Bangladesh Water Development Board Act, 2000
[click to view]

The Environment Conservation Act, 1995
[click to view]

Other documents

Judgement of Shrimp cultivation
[click to view]

List of Shrimp Publication
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Syeda Rizwana Hasan, Bangladesh Environmental Lawyers Association (BELA), [email protected]
Last update18/08/2019
Conflict ID:3695
Legal notice / Aviso legal
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