Forest Plantation by Green Resources in Bukaleba, Uganda

“No places to pray to our gods”; displacement and eviction while "carbon violence" displays at forest plantations in Uganda


In 1996, the Norwegian company "Green Resources" acquired a 50-year license to 9,165 hectares of land in the government-owned Bukaleba Central Forest Reserve.

See more...
Basic Data
NameForest Plantation by Green Resources in Bukaleba, Uganda
ProvinceMayuge district
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture, Fisheries and Livestock Management)
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Land acquisition conflicts
Specific CommoditiesTimber
Carbon offsets
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsGreen Resources is the largest plantation forestry company in Africa (outside of South Africa) and has plantations in Uganda, Tanzania and Mozambique. In the last 10 years, 40,000 hectares of forest plantations were planted with an investment sum of $125 million.

In 1996, Green Resources obtained a license for 9,165 hectares of land in the Bukaleba Central Forest Reserve in Eastern Uganda from the National Forestry Authority. Trees are planted on 5,780 hectares of land, and the remaining 3,385 hectares are to be maintained by Green Resources for conservation purposes. The project is expected to deliver 100,000 tCO2e in the period from 2012-to 2015.
Project Area (in hectares)9,165
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population8000-40000 [1]
Start Date01/01/1996
Company Names or State EnterprisesGreen Resources from Norway - Timber extraction, forest products, forest plantations
Bugosa Forestry Company (BFC)
Relevant government actorsNational Forest Authority (NFA), National Environment Management Authority (NEMA)
International and Financial InstitutionsForest Stewardship Council (FSC)
Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) - Provider of certification for the voluntary carbon market
Norwegian Investment Fund for Developing Countries (Norfund) from Norway
Corporación financiera Internacional (CFI)
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)LATENT (no visible organising at the moment)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Landless peasants
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Potential: Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsVisible: Malnutrition, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide
Potential: Other environmental related diseases
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Increase in violence and crime, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Specific impacts on women
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseMigration/displacement
Strengthening of participation
Do you consider this as a success?No
Sources and Materials

Friends of the Earth (2012). Land, life and justice. How land grabbing in Uganda is affecting the environment, livelihoods and food sovereignty of communities.
[click to view]

Lyons, Kirsten & Westoby, Peter (2014). Carbon Marktes and the New 'Carbon Violence': A Ugandan Study. International Journal of African Renaissance Studies. 9(2): 77-94.

Bondevik, Susanne (2013). Carbon Forestry and Trading: A Case Study of Green Resources in Uganda. Master Thesis.
[click to view]

Green Resources (2012). Company Report.
[click to view]

[1] The Oakland Institute (2014). The Darker Side of Green. Plantation Forestry and Carbon Violence in Uganda. The Case of Green Resources' Forestry-Based Carbon Markets
[click to view]


IPS - OPINION: Addressing Climate Change Requires Real Solutions, Not Blind Faith in the Magic of Markets

By Kristen Lyons
[click to view]

Other Documents

Timber by GR Track of Green Resources transporting timber in Uganda
[click to view]

Meta Information
Last update13/10/2015