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Forest Plantation by Green Resources in Bukaleba, Uganda

“No places to pray to our gods”; displacement and eviction while "carbon violence" displays at forest plantations in Uganda


In 1996, the Norwegian company "Green Resources" acquired a 50-year license to 9,165 hectares of land in the government-owned Bukaleba Central Forest Reserve.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Forest Plantation by Green Resources in Bukaleba, Uganda
State or province:Mayuge district
Location of conflict:Bukaleba
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture, Fisheries and Livestock Management)
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Land acquisition conflicts
Specific commodities:Carbon offsets
Project Details and Actors
Project details

Green Resources is the largest plantation forestry company in Africa (outside of South Africa) and has plantations in Uganda, Tanzania and Mozambique. In the last 10 years, 40,000 hectares of forest plantations were planted with an investment sum of $125 million.

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Project area:9,165
Type of populationRural
Affected Population:8000-40000 [1]
Start of the conflict:01/01/1996
Company names or state enterprises:Green Resources from Norway - Timber extraction, forest products, forest plantations
Bugosa Forestry Company (BFC)
Relevant government actors:National Forest Authority (NFA), National Environment Management Authority (NEMA)
International and Finance InstitutionsForest Stewardship Council (FSC)
Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) - Provider of certification for the voluntary carbon market
Norwegian Investment Fund for Developing Countries (Norfund) from Norway
Corporación financiera Internacional (CFI)
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityLATENT (no visible organising at the moment)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Landless peasants
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Potential: Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsVisible: Malnutrition, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide
Potential: Other environmental related diseases
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Increase in violence and crime, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Specific impacts on women
Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Migration/displacement
Strengthening of participation
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Sources & Materials
References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

Friends of the Earth (2012). Land, life and justice. How land grabbing in Uganda is affecting the environment, livelihoods and food sovereignty of communities.
[click to view]

Bondevik, Susanne (2013). Carbon Forestry and Trading: A Case Study of Green Resources in Uganda. Master Thesis.
[click to view]

Lyons, Kirsten & Westoby, Peter (2014). Carbon Marktes and the New 'Carbon Violence': A Ugandan Study. International Journal of African Renaissance Studies. 9(2): 77-94.

Green Resources (2012). Company Report.
[click to view]

[1] The Oakland Institute (2014). The Darker Side of Green. Plantation Forestry and Carbon Violence in Uganda. The Case of Green Resources' Forestry-Based Carbon Markets
[click to view]

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

IPS - OPINION: Addressing Climate Change Requires Real Solutions, Not Blind Faith in the Magic of Markets

By Kristen Lyons
[click to view]

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Last update13/10/2015
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