Hydraulic fracking is a form of gas extraction that involves digging wells that are around 2-3 miles deep into the ground . After the wells are formed, about 20 million liters of water are required for one frack per well, as well as thousands of liters of chemicals, ranging from benign to highly toxic, some of which are known carcinogens (benzene) . This water mixed with chemicals under high pressure crack the shale rock and release natural gas, mainly consisting of methane. The first formal interest in shale gas in the Karoo began in 2008, with an application for exploration rights - as yet ungranted - by Bundu Oil and Gas. Rhino Resources Ltd. (local subsidiary is Rhino Oil and Gas), with its headquarters in British Virgin Islands is pursuing oil and gas concessions in West, East, and Southern Africa that contain under-explored shale natural gas basins such as those at the base of the Drakensberg mountains in the municipality of Matatiele . The area in Matatiele, called ER 295 (TCP No. 104) was approximately 120,000 ha in extent and covered approximately 200 properties (farms and portions). In October 2015, Rhino Oil and Gas submitted their first application for exploration of petroleum products (oil, gas, condensate, coal bed methane, helium, and biogenic gas) with the Petroleum Agency of South Africa (PASA) to study the reserves in the Matatiele region. PASA accepted the exploration rights (ER) application on 22 May 2015 (Ref: 12/3/295 ER) . After the acceptance of the scoping report, Rhino Oil and Gas reduced the extent of the ER application area, excluding the Malekgalonyane (Ongeluksnek) Nature Reserve, resulting in an area of 110,572 ha. The EIR was open to public comment from August 12 - September 16, 2016. The Matatiele exploration license was approved in October 2017 by Dlamini, who has since left his post and has been arrested for fraud and scandal in a separate affair. In May 2019, AgriSa led legal actions against Rhino Oil and Gas, in relation to the exploration rights granted in the north eastern part of the Eastern Cape, which comes amid concerns that the state is backing fracking despite opposition from farmers and residents . There are many disadvantages to fracking, including the contamination and losses to income from farming, grazing land, and the disruption of water sources - all for short term benefits from fracking. The land is intrinsically connected to South African culture and extracting their natural resources is a form of stripping away their identity. People in power ought to be aware of how decisions could potentially have on communities and have dialogues that give voice to all constituents, elite or underprivileged.