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Golf Park Dubrovnik, Croatia

The opposition to the proposed luxury golf course resort on the hill of Srđ overlooking the UNESCO town Dubrovnik resulted in the Citizens’ Initiative "Srđ is Ours" that became symbol of the resistance to mismanagement in spatial policy.


The Golf Park Dubrovnik is a one billion-plus euro real-estate international project, which was revealed in 2006.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Golf Park Dubrovnik, Croatia
State or province:Dubrovnik-Neretva County
Location of conflict:Dubrovnik
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Tourism Recreation
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Land acquisition conflicts
Tourism facilities (ski resorts, hotels, marinas)
Specific commodities:Land
Tourism services
Project Details and Actors
Project details

It is assumed by project opponents that the project will turn one third of Dubrovnik public space into a private development. The plan is to build 240 villas, 400 apartments and 2 hotels.

Project area:310
Level of Investment:1,353,000,000
Type of populationUrban
Affected Population:40,000
Start of the conflict:2006
Company names or state enterprises:Israeli businessman Aaron Frenkel from Israel - Investor
Australian golfing legend Greg Norman from Australia - Investor
Loyds investment corporation from United Kingdom - Investor
Razvoj Golf doo from Croatia - Holds a location permit for the development of the Golf Park Dubrovnik project
Relevant government actors:The Government of the Republic of Croatia; The City of Dubrovnik; The Dubrovnik-Neretva County; The Ministry of Environment and Nature Protection of the Republic of Croatia
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Green Action; Local citizen initiative ‘Srđ je naš’; Croatian Architects Association (UHA)
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Social movements
Local scientists/professionals
International artists
Forms of mobilization:Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Development of alternative proposals
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Referendum other local consultations
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsPotential: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…)
Socio-economical ImpactsPotential: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Violations of human rights, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusPlanned (decision to go ahead eg EIA undertaken, etc)
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Court decision (victory for environmental justice)
New legislation
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
Development of alternatives:The opponents required deletion of the golf resort from the country spatial plan and cancellation of the project. They organised referendum in April 2013 to assess the citizens' position on the project.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:The referendum failed due to the low turnout. Currently, the investor is in a process of obtaining necessary building permits and the beginning of the construction is planned for September 2016.
Sources & Materials
Related laws and legislations - Juridical texts related to the conflict

Zakon o izmjenama i dopunama Zakona o šumama
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Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

Još nema gradnje golf terena na Srđu
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Seeing red over green light for golf in Croatia
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KLGB SRĐ JE GRAD ‘Golferima dozvola za infrastrukturu koja ne postoji u planovima’
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Croatia's vote fails to derail golf complex that could change the face of Dubrovnik
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'Srđ nikad neće biti nacionalni park, na njemu će netko zaraditi'
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‘Srđ je naš’, a Golf Park Dubrovnik ima potpuno novi web
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'Srđ je naš': 10.000 glasova je dovoljno da se golf odbaci
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Naš Srđ uskoro će postati njihov
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Dubrovački arhitekti protiv izgradnje na Srđu
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Documentary "A Dangerous Game" exposes the evil Donald Trump
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Sud poništio prostorni plan koji je omogućio golf na Srđu
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Razvoj golf dobio lokacijsku dozvolu za Srđ
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Dark Side of the Greens - a BBC 4 documentary
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Golf and property development – time for a divorce
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Croatia: controversial golf course
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Ivan Kusalić: Sad je na potezu Grad Dubrovnik
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Razvoj golf got the first building permit
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Doznajemo što nam je vlast željela sakriti: Vlada se obvezala golferima na Srđu izgraditi infrastrukturu i dati zemlju u koncesiju!
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NAJKONTROVERZNIJI PROJEKT U HRVATSKOJ Srđ je naš: 'Ništa od golfa!'; Vlahušić: 'Samo neka se počne graditi!'
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Kako se u Hrvatskoj (ne)gospodari šumama
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Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

DuTV - 23.04.2013. Sučeljavanje: Capor i Kusalić (Golf Park Dubrovnik)
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A dangerous game (movie)
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Meta information
Contributor:Jovanka Spiric, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, vankajo(at)
Last update18/08/2019
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