Great Pacific Garbage Patch, North Pacific Ocean

The Great Pacific Garbage Patch located between Hawaii and California is the largest accumulation of ocean plastic in the world


Description

The Great Pacific Garbage Patch is a marine area in the Pacific Ocean between Hawaii and California with a high concentration of marine debris and plastic waste. The extent of the area is considered to be around 1,600,000,000 km2 and it is the largest and best known among other similar zones, some of which exist in the Atlantic and Indian oceans [1, 2, 3, 10]. A scientific article published in 2018 indicated that at least 79,000 tonnes of ocean plastic are floating inside this marine area [10].

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Basic Data
NameGreat Pacific Garbage Patch, North Pacific Ocean
CountryUnited States of America
Province Pacific Ocean
Site Pacific Ocean
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Waste Management
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Landfills, toxic waste treatment, uncontrolled dump sites
Specific CommoditiesPlastic; marine debris
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe extent of the area where marine debris gets accumulated is around 1,600,000,000 km2. A scientific article published in 2018 indicated that at least 79,000 tonnes of ocean plastic are floating inside this marine area [10].
Project Area (in hectares)60,000,000
Type of PopulationUnknown
Start Date01/01/1997
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersThe Ocean Cleanup: https://www.theoceancleanup.com;

Algalita Foundation: https://www.algalita.org;

The Plastic Pollution Coalition: http://www.plasticpollutioncoalition.org;

The Plastic Oceans Foundation: https://plasticoceans.org
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingInternational ejos
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of MobilizationArtistic and creative actions (eg guerilla theatre, murals)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Development of alternative proposals
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Media based activism/alternative media
Public campaigns
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Other Environmental impacts, Food insecurity (crop damage)
Potential: Global warming
OtherAdverse impacts on the entire marine ecosystem and marine food webs:

As micro plastics and other trash collect on or near the surface of the ocean, they block sunlight from reaching plankton and algae below. Algae and plankton are the most common autotrophs that are organisms producing their own nutrients from oxygen, carbon, and sunlight. If algae and plankton communities are threatened, the entire food web becomes endangered since most of marine animals such as fish and turtles feed on algae and plankton, which will than affect the predators such as tuna, sharks, and whales. Eventually, seafood would become less available in the marine ecosystem as well as more expensive for people. [3]
Health ImpactsPotential: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Other Health impacts
OtherToxic impacts of micro plastics are identified even in the bodies of babies [11, 12].

Some plastics decompose within a year of entering the water, leaching potentially toxic chemicals such as bisphenol A, PCBs, and derivatives of polystyrene [11].
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Loss of livelihood
Potential: Other socio-economic impacts
OtherSeafood might become less available and more expensive [3].
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseGlobal awareness raising
Development of AlternativesThe environmentalists, international EJOs, and fisher people claim for the reduction and/or ban of (especially single use) plastics, and point to the need of reusing and recycling of plastics and materials.
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.The Great Pacific Garbage Patch is currently getting bigger and denser.
Sources and Materials
Legislations

A Fishing Town in India Is Building a Road to a Plastic-Free Ocean (28.06.2018) [16]
[click to view]

References

Impacts of marine debris on subsistence fishermen An exploratory study (Nash, 1992. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 24(3), pp.150-156) [14]
[click to view]

Evidence that the Great Pacific Garbage Patch is rapidly accumulating plastic. (Libretto et al., 2018. Nature, Scientific Reports, 8:4666) [10]
[click to view]

Links

Great Pacific Garbage Patch (Encyclopedia Britannica) [1]
[click to view]

Man begins six-month swim through 'Great Pacific garbage patch' (The Guardian, 05.06.2018) [4]
[click to view]

The Great Pacific Garbage Patch (National Geographic) [3]
[click to view]

The ‘Great Pacific Garbage Patch’ Is Ballooning, 87,000 Tons of Plastic and Counting (New York Times, 22.03.2018) [2]
[click to view]

The giant garbage vortex in the Pacific Ocean is over twice the size of Texas — here's what it looks like [5]
[click to view]

Great Pacific Garbage Patch now three times the size of France (CNN, 23.03.2018) [6]
[click to view]

'Great Pacific garbage patch' sprawling with far more debris than thought (The Guardian, 22.03.2018) [7]
[click to view]

The Great Pacific Garbage Patch (Ocean Clean Up) [8]
[click to view]

World's largest collection of ocean garbage is twice the size of Texas [9]
[click to view]

These Indian fishermen take plastic out of the sea and use it to build roads (World Economy Forum, 06.2018) [18]
[click to view]

EU unveils plans to pay fishermen to catch plastic (The Guardian, 04.05.2011) [19]
[click to view]

Fishermen call for ban on plastics (Citi News Room, 11.06.2018) [15]
[click to view]

Fishing for plastic from the sea (Un Environment, 24.05.2018) [20]
[click to view]

How India’s Fishermen Turn Ocean Plastic Into Roads (National Geographic, 23.05.2018) [17]
[click to view]

EU and US tackling plastic pollution of the ocean [21]
[click to view]

Plastic Pollution Coalition [12]
[click to view]

Media Links

Great Pacific garbage patch [11]
[click to view]

Our plastic Our Problem (Seas At Risk, video)
[click to view]

Other Documents

The Great Pacific Garbage Patch [3]
[click to view]

[click to view]

Density of plastics between 1962 and 2018 [2]
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorENVJustice Project
Last update17/10/2018
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