Hoa Mac Industrial Park Land Disputes, Duy Tien District, Vietnam

From agriculture to industry: land grabs, lack of participation and low compensations mark the process of industrialization in Duy Tien District.


For many years, Duy Tien District in Ha Nam province was characterized by a largely agricultural economy, which however has experienced rapid industrialization within the last decades. Among the district’s recent industrialization projects is the Hoa Mac Industrial Park (IP), whose implementation has required the displacement of hundreds of families from their agricultural lands, in absence of a proper consultation or participation process regarding the project development [1].

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Basic Data
NameHoa Mac Industrial Park Land Disputes, Duy Tien District, Vietnam
ProvinceHa Nam province
SiteDuy Tien District
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Land acquisition conflicts
Urban development conflicts
Other industries
Manufacturing activities
Specific CommoditiesLand
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe total area of Hoa Mac Industrial Park covers 134ha, comprised 82ha from Chau Giang commune, 45ha from Trac Van commune, and 4ha from Hoa Mac town, all located in Duy Tien DisTrict, Ha Nam province [1].

The Industrial Park is implemented and operated by the Hoa Mac Industrial Park Management and Development Company Limited, subsidiary of Hoa Phat Urban Development and Construction Joint Stock Company, which is member of the large Hoa Phat Group Joint Stock Company (HPG). Among the investors of the Hoa Phat Group is the Danish BankInvest Group [2].

The first construction phase involved an investment of 310 billion VND (around 14 million USD) [2].

According to Hoa Phat Group’s 2014 financial statement, the group received credits from BIDV, Vietnam Development Bank (VDB), Techcombank, Indovina Bank, ANZ, and Vietinbank [2].
Project Area (in hectares)134
Level of Investment (in USD)14,000,000
Type of PopulationSemi-urban
Potential Affected Population600 households (around 2,500 to 3,000 people)
Start Date2007
Company Names or State EnterprisesHoa Mac Industrial Park Management and Development Company Limited (HPG) from Vietnam - infrastructure development
Hoa Phat Urban Development and Construction Joint Stock Company from Vietnam - industrial construction
Hoa Phat Group Joint Stock Company (HPG) (HPG) from Vietnam - industries
Relevant government actorsLocal village officers

Provincial government

Government of Vietnam
International and Financial InstitutionsBankInvest from Denmark - investment, asset management
BIDV Bank (BIDV) from Vietnam - banking, investment, finance
Vietnam Development Bank (VDB) (VDB) from Vietnam - investment, finance
Techcombank Vietnam from Vietnam - banking, finance, investment
Techcombank Vietnam from Vietnam - banking, finance, investment
Indovina Bank Vietnam (IVB) from Vietnam - banking, finance, investment
VietinBank from Vietnam - banking, finance, investment
ANZ Bank group Australia (ANZ) from Australia
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersunknown
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)LOW (some local organising)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Forms of MobilizationDevelopment of a network/collective action
Land occupation
Refusal of compensation
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Noise pollution
Potential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsVisible: Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide
Potential: Malnutrition, Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..) , Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Land dispossession
Potential: Increase in violence and crime, Loss of livelihood, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights
Project StatusUnder construction
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCompensation
Strengthening of participation
Under negotiation
Development of AlternativesVillagers demand fair compensations
Do you consider this as a success?Not Sure
Why? Explain briefly.While many households were persuaded to accept the low compensations, more than hundred households achieved to resist for at least six years.
Sources and Materials

Decree No. 84/2007/ND-CP additionally stipulating the grant of land use right certificates, recovery of land, exercise of land use rights, order and procedures for compensation, support and resettlement upon land recovery by the State, and settlement of land related complaints.
[click to view]

Decree No. 22/1998/NĐ-CP (1998) on compensations for damage when the state recovers land for use in purposes of national defense, security, national interests and public interests
[click to view]

Vietnamese Land Law of 2013 (Land Law No.45/2013/QH13)
[click to view]

Vietnamese Land Law of 2003 (No. 13/2003/QH11)
[click to view]


[1] Australian Aid, The Asia Foundation and T&C Consulting, 2014. Public Land Disputes in Vietnam: A Multi-Actor Analysis of Five Case Studies with an East Asian Comparative. (accessed 15/06/2015)
[click to view]

[2] Hoa Phat Group Company Website: "Hoa Mac Industrial Park - Ha Nam Province received the investment license" (accessed 16/06/2015)
[click to view]

Other Documents

Industrial Park - Plan Source: http://www.hoaphat.com.vn/eHome/eNewsdetail.aspx?cid=95&id=3393
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorA. Scheidel (ICTA-UAB) / arnim "dot" scheidel "at" gmail "dot" com
Last update19/06/2015