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IFFCO Kisan SEZ in Nellore, AP, India


Indian Farmers Fertilizer Cooperative Limited (IFFCO) had proposed to develop a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh, known as IFFCO Kisan SEZ (IKSEZ). The project is wholly owned by subsidiaries of IFFCO and mainly focused on Agro based products; it offers various customs duty, income tax and sales tax concessions provided by the Government of India to promote economic activity. It is inspired by the concept of "Integrated Agropark", defined as "systems innovation of metropolitan agro production, processing and logistics."[8] According to the IFFCO website the mission of the IKSEZ is “ to empower the Indian farmer by developing a “Farmer Owned – Farmer Managed” SEZ with state of the art infrastructure facilities catering primarily to the food processing industry and housing global manufacturing majors” [5]. Many global as well as local Investors have showed their interest in the SEZ [7] For this project a total of 2,776 acres of land has been acquired and an Rs. 2,400 crore was proposed and an initial investment [1]. The aim of this Kisan SEZ is to provide state-of-the-art infrastructure facilities to a wide range of industries but mainly to food processing and agri-based industries.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:IFFCO Kisan SEZ in Nellore, AP, India
State or province:Andhra Pradesh
Location of conflict:District-Nellore
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Industrial and Utilities conflicts
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Intensive food production (monoculture and livestock)
Land acquisition conflicts
Specific commodities:Land
Project Details and Actors
Project details

The SEZ is based on about 2776 acres of land. IKSEZ is based on the concept of Integrated Agropark.

Project area:1,000
Level of Investment for the conflictive project$ 398,129,816 (Rs 2,400 crore)
Type of populationRural
Affected Population:10,000-20,000
Start of the conflict:2007
Company names or state enterprises:Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative Limited (IFFCO) from India
IFFCO Kisan SEZ (IKSEZ) from India
Global Dairy Health from India
Fonterra from New Zealand - Participation in the Kisan SZ consortium
Relevant government actors:Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI), Department of Commerce and Industry, Government of India, Government of Andhra Pradesh, Food and Safety Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Political Party CPI (ML), People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), Federation of Indian Animal Protection Organizations
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Local ejos
Landless peasants
Local government/political parties
Social movements
Ethnically/racially discriminated groups
Forms of mobilization:Boycotts of official procedures/non-participation in official processes
Public campaigns
Boycott of the election
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession
Potential: Loss of livelihood, Specific impacts on women, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Other socio-economic impactsAnimal Right Violation
Project StatusUnder construction
Conflict outcome / response:Under negotiation
Proposal and development of alternatives:The villagers are against the SEZ because it was not able to fulfill its promise of jobs for the locals. With their demands villagers boycotted both parliament and legislative assembly elections and did not vote. No political party made any promise to meet the demand of voters because the number of voters in the villages is quite low which has very little effect on the overall result of the election [4].
An animal welfare organization, Federation of Indian Animal Protection Organizations, New Delhi, is strongly against the project. According to this organization, housing of about 40,000 animals in a single Mega dairy is very harmful for the animals and also to the environment [6].
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Not Sure
Briefly explain:Nellore Lok Sabha constituency and seven villages from Polavaram assembly seat did not participate in the elections. In the mode of protest, villagers retained form the voting and demanded that their land to be returned [4].
Sources & Materials
Juridical relevant texts related to the conflict (laws, legislations, EIAs, etc)

Andhra Pradesh Cow Protection Act

The Special Economic Zone Act, 2005
[click to view]

[1] IFFCO Kisan SEZ
[click to view]

[2] IFFCO to set up Kisan SEZ
[click to view]

[3] SEZ board rejects Iffco proposal for dairy
[click to view]

[4] 'Neglected' villages boycott bypolls
[click to view]

[5]IFFCO Kisan SEZ
[click to view]

[6] Stop India's first mega dairy in Andhra Pradesh
[click to view]

[7] Global cos may join Iffco’s Kisan SEZ
[click to view]

[8] Agropark
[click to view]

[9] The Hindu
[click to view]

[10] A Sour Undertaking, by J. Varghese
[click to view]

Activity picks up at Iffco Kisan SEZ
[click to view]

India's first Kisan SEZ to come up in Andhra Pradesh
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Swapan Kumar Patra
Last update18/08/2019
Conflict ID:1470
Legal notice / Aviso legal
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