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Indramayu Coal Power Plant, West Java, Indonesia

The operations of the government-owned coal power plant in Indramayu has caused severe livelihood losses to local communities. The government's plan to construct another plant in the area is met by local, national and international resistance.


The construction of the 330 x 3 MW coal-fired power plant (PLTU) in Indramayu started in 2007, and four years later it was put in operation. While being operated by the government-owned company PT Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PT PLN), it was financed through a loan from a consortium of public and private lenders led by Bank of China [1]. Surrounding communities have suffered severe livelihood losses resulting from the operations of the plant, and the preceding construction process. These include respiratory diseases, diminishing yields and reduced catches of fish and shrimp. Farming and fishing have historically been the most important income-bringing activities for the residents of Indramayu, but these have become increasingly unviable due to pollution and large-scale acquisition of productive farmland [2].

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Indramayu Coal Power Plant, West Java, Indonesia
State or province:West Java
Location of conflict:The villages Sumuradem, Mekarsari, Patrol Baru, and Sumur Adem in sub-districts Sukra and Patrol
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Thermal power plants
Specific commodities:Electricity
Project Details and Actors
Project details

PLTU I: 330 x 3 MW

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Project area:PLTU I 83 ha, PLTU II 275.4 ha
Level of Investment for the conflictive projectPLTU I: 804 million, PLTU II: 2 billion
Type of populationRural
Start of the conflict:2007
Company names or state enterprises:PT Perusahaan Listrik Negara from Indonesia
PT Penta Adi Samudra from Indonesia - EPC contractor
China National Electric Engineering Corporation (CNEEC) from China - EPC contractor
China National Electronics Import-Export Corporation (CEIEC) from China - EPC contractor
Relevant government actors:The Government of the Republic of Indonesia
The Government of China
The Government of Japan
International and Finance InstitutionsJapan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (JICA) from Japan
Bank of China (BOC) from China
BNP Paribas (BNP) from France
China Construction Bank (CCB) from China
China Development Bank (CDB) from China
ICBC (ICBC) from China
Societe Generale (SGA) from France
China Citic Bank from China
ANZ Bank group Australia (ANZ) from Australia
Bayerische Landesbank (BayernLB) from Germany
Crédit Agricole Corporate and Investment Bank from France
Credit Suisse (CS) from Switzerland
ING Bank NV from Netherlands
Natixis from France
Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) from United Kingdom
WestLB from Germany
Fortis Bank from Netherlands
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Friends of the Earth Japan,
WALHI Indonesia,
Japan Center for a Sustainable Environment and Society (JACSES),
Kiko Network, Japan,
Jaringan Tanpa Asap Batubara Indramayu (Indramayu Coal Smokeless Network) (JATAYU)
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityMEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
International ejos
Local ejos
Fisher people
Forms of mobilization:Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Objections to the EIA
Street protest/marches
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Global warming
Health ImpactsVisible: Other environmental related diseases
Other Health impactsrespiratory diseases: bronchitis
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Land dispossession, Militarization and increased police presence
Project StatusStopped
Conflict outcome / response:Criminalization of activists
Court decision (failure for environmental justice)
Under negotiation
Violent targeting of activists
Project cancelled
in December 2017, the three Indramayu residents Sawin (50), Sukma (35) and Nanto (41) were arrested, accused of having insulted the Indonesian flag by raising it upside down in a protest
Proposal and development of alternatives:WALHI and JATAYU demand the construction of PLTU II to be stopped; that JICA withdraws its investments in the facilty, and that the Indonesian government takes on a transition to renewable energy. Further, they demand that the imprisoned villagers to be released immediately; referring to Article 66 Law o 32/2009 Concerning Environment, according to which any Indonesian citizen who fights for a good and healthy environment should not be prosecuted (Widianto 2018; WALHI, 2019).
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Yes
Briefly explain:In June 2022, Japan announced the stop of financing the expansion of Indramayu CFPP. This is considered part of Japan's efforts to phase out coal financing.
Sources & Materials
Juridical relevant texts related to the conflict (laws, legislations, EIAs, etc)

Law No. 2 of 2012 concerning land acquisition for development in the public interest

Law No. 32/2009 on Environmental Protection and Management

Law No. 2 of 2012 concerning Land Acquisition for Development in the Public Interest

PP27/2012 concerning Environmental Permits and Ministerial Direction LH17/2012 concerning Guidelines for Community Involvement

Law No. 32/2009

PP27/2012 concerning environmental permits and ministerial direction LH17/2012 concerning guidelines for community involvement

[1] Aid Data (2017). Chinese and International Financial Institutions loan $592 million to Indonesia for Indramayu Power Plant (Fast-track program).
[click to view]

[2] WALHI (2019). Re: Request No More Japanese Support and Loan in Any Kind of Form for Indramayu Coal-fired Power Plant Expansion Project, West Java, Indonesia.
[click to view]

[2] WALHI (2019). Re: Request No More Japanese Support and Loan in Any Kind of Form for Indramayu Coal-fired Power Plant Expansion. Project, West Java, Indonesia.
[click to view]

[3] Widianto, W. (2018). Indramayu farmers against coal power. Chain Reaction, No. 134, Dec 2018: 16-17. [pdf]
[click to view]

[4] JICA (2019). Indramayu Coal Power Plant Project (I).
[click to view]

[5] (2017). Indonesian farmers and fishermen deliver a clear message to Japan: Stop funding dirty coal.
[click to view]

[6] FoE Japan (2017). Cirebon and Indramayu Coal-fired Power Plant Projects, West Java, Indonesia.
[click to view]

[7] No Coal Japan (2019). Indonesian Farmers Visit to Japan to Demand the Japanese Government and JICA to Stop Coal Finance.
[click to view]

[8] KPPIP (2019). Indramayu Coal Fired Steam Power Plant.
[click to view]

[9] Shoko Oda and Ryotaro Nakamaru, "Japan to end financing of Asian coal projects", Financial Review, 23 June 2022.
[click to view]

PT PLN (2017). Indramayu Coal-fired Power Plant Project: Land Acquisition and Resettlement Action Plan (LARAP).
[click to view]

Gres News (2016). Locals Protest Indramayu II Steam Power Plant Project.
[click to view]

Meta information
Last update22/05/2023
Conflict ID:3224
Legal notice / Aviso legal
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