The Brazilian state of Piauí is not traditionally a mining state. However, the existence of reserves of iron ore, diamonds, phosphorus, nickel, marble, limestone and clay and the construction of Transnordestina Railway that will connect Piauí to two important ports (Suape, Pernambuco and Pecém, Ceará) has attracted mining companies in the region. The mining company Brasil Exploração Mineral S.A. (BEMISA), since 2008, began the exploration research in the municipalities of Curral Novo do Piauí, Paulistana and Simões to enable the extraction and exportation of iron ore. BEMISA was founded in the previous year (2007) and, when commodities prices were high, promptly developed 10 mining projects – four of them to extract iron ore – in seven Brazilian states. The BEMISA mining project could affect up to 1000 people mainly in rural communities in Curral Novo do Piauí, among these Baixo dos Belos, Manga Velha, Lagoa do Ovo, Sítio do Juá, Caititu and Garapa. The first mobilizations against the project arose when the process of environmental licensing was already advanced.