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Kakinada Special Economic Zone, AP, India


Government of Andhra Pradesh had taken initiative to promote about 115 Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in the state. Kakinada Special Economic Zone (KSEZ) is among one of these SEZs. It is located about 15 KM North of Kakinada deep water port in East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh state [1]. The proposed KSE will include industrial cluster of many industries and a deep-water port for importing and exporting petroleum, biotech, agricultural and other products [2].

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Kakinada Special Economic Zone, AP, India
State or province:Andhra Pradesh
Location of conflict:Kakinada
Accuracy of locationMEDIUM (Regional level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Industrial and Utilities conflicts
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Other
Land acquisition conflicts
Specific commodities:Land
Project Details and Actors
Project details

The port-based multi-product SEZ was conceptualized in 2005. For this purpose about more than 10,500 acres of land has been acquired. The estimated investment in the project is about Rs 40,000 crore for the establishment of industries like oil refineries, power plants, garments and machinery manufacturing units. The goal of Kakinada SEZ is to attract foreign investment [2].

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Project area:4,047
Level of Investment for the conflictive project6,646,856,995 (40,000 crore)
Type of populationRural
Start of the conflict:2005
Company names or state enterprises:Kakinada SEZ Pvt. Ltd from India - India
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC) from India - Share holder
Kakinada Sea Ports Limited (KSPL) from India - Share holders
IL&FS Cluster Development Initiative Limited (IL&FS) from India - Share Holders
Relevant government actors:Government of India
Government of Andhra Pradesh
The Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG)
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Local Villagers
Telegu Desham Party (TDP)
Communist Party of India
Toxics Watch Alliance
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Local ejos
Landless peasants
Local government/political parties
Forms of mobilization:Blockades
Development of alternative proposals
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Land occupation
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Property damage/arson
Threats to use arms
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession
Potential: Increase in violence and crime, Specific impacts on women, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusProposed (exploration phase)
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Criminalization of activists
Environmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area
Land demarcation
Strengthening of participation
Under negotiation
Violent targeting of activists
Proposal and development of alternatives:Different political parties including the Telegu Desham Party (TDP) who was in opposition at that time of agitations was strongly against the project. TDP decided to support the farmers’ cause and fight against the forcible acquisition of lands from them in the name of SEZs and industrialization. They promised that If TDP is voted to power they will cancel all illegal land deals and return the cultivable lands to the farmers [1, 2]
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:The Controller and Auditor General of India (CAG) had observed that Andhra Pradesh Government is acquiring lands from the farmers but not monitoring the implantations of the projects. Among the 115 projects, only about 37 SEZ's were operational or are in various stage of development [1,2]
Although, the land has been acquired for the SEZ, no major industrial activity has taken place. The land has also been acquired illegally and at very low prices. Farmers are without cultivable lands are finding it difficult to earn their livelihood [1, 4].
Sources & Materials
Juridical relevant texts related to the conflict (laws, legislations, EIAs, etc)

The Special Economic Zones Act, 2005
[click to view]

SEZ Rules incorporating amendments upto July, 2010
[click to view]

Policy Resolution for Promotion of Petroleum, Chemicals and Petrochemical Investment Regions (PCPIRs)
[click to view]

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

Documentary "The Walls and the Tiger"
[click to view]

Jamie Cross (2009), From dreams to discontent Educated young men and the politics of work at a Special Economic Zone in Andhra Pradesh Contributions to Indian Sociology 2009 43: 351
[click to view]

[1] What is Kakinada SEZ
[click to view]

[2] Kakinada SEZ, storm on the horizon
[click to view]

[3] About Kakinada SEZ
[click to view]

[4] Anti-special economic zone protest turns violent
[click to view]

Kakinada SEZ
[click to view]

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Farmers protest against Kakinada SEZ - Tv9 (in Telegu)
[click to view]

Chandrababu supports Kakinada farmers protest against SEZ - Tv9 (in Telegu)
[click to view]

Chandrababu to participate in a dharna in Kakinada in protest against the SEZ (in Telegu)
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Swapan Kumar Patra
Last update18/08/2019
Conflict ID:1449
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