In 1999 a leak was discovered in the jet fuel loading facility at Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB). The size of the spill has been estimated at 24 million gallons (91 million litres), the largest toxic spill in the history of the US. Jet fuel and aviation gas had been leaking into the soil and groundwater for decades. The KAFB jet fuel spill is approximately twice the size of the 1989 Exxon Valdez disaster, when a tanker spilled more than 12 million gallons (45 million litres) of crude oil into Alaska’s Prince William Sound killing an estimated 250,000 seabirds along with seals, otters, and killer whales. In 2013 Citizens Action New Mexico (CANM) published an investigation of the clean-up programme, which was highly critical of the authorities, stating that, over 13 years after discovery of the leak, the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) had not compelled the Air Force to remediate the spill effectively or to contain a toxic plume migrating towards wells that are an important source of drinking water for Albuquerque. CANM joined with Amigos Bravos to appeal to the EPA to intervene in the stalled clean-up and conduct a new assessment of the spill. CANM criticized a map ostensibly showing the known limits of contaminated groundwater, arguing that KAFB had not completed studies of the aquifer, so hydrologists were not able to model the movement of the underground contamination. CANM and other critics of the remediation efforts were especially concerned that it was limited to soil vapor extraction, a process that cleans jet-fuel saturated soil but does nothing to remove contaminants from groundwater.