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Krsko Nuclear Power Plant, Slovenia


The construction of Krško NPP started in year 1975 and was concluded in 1981. During 1982 numerous test were performed and in January 1983 Krško NPP started with commercial production. One year later regular operation of Krško NPP was approved. Introduction of nuclear energy was a great challenge for involved scientific and technical experts, legislators, and all domestic companies acting either as contractors or subcontractors.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Krsko Nuclear Power Plant, Slovenia
Location of conflict:Krsko
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Nuclear
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Nuclear power plants
Specific commodities:Uranium
Project Details and Actors
Project details

NEK is equipped with a Westinghouse Pressurised Light Water Reactor of 2.000 MW thermal power. The power plants net electrical power is 696 MW. It is connected to the 400kV grid supplying power to consumer centres in Slovenia and Croatia. The total installed output of the power stations is 2.834 MW, from which represents slo share of npp Krško 14% (384 MW of 696 MW total power).

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Project area:10
Type of populationSemi-urban
Affected Population:2,200
Company names or state enterprises:NEK Ltd from Slovenia - which is owned 50 % by GEN energija Ltd. (Slovenia)
GEN energija Ltd. from Slovenia
Hrvatska Elektroprivreda (HEP Grupa) from Croatia
Relevant government actors:(ARAO)- Agency for Radioactive Waste Management, Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Focus, Greenpeace and Združenje ekoloških gibanj - ZEG
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityLATENT (no visible organising at the moment)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:Local ejos
Forms of mobilization:Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Genetic contamination, Global warming, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Waste overflow, Oil spills, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Health ImpactsVisible: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…)
Potential: Accidents, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Occupational disease and accidents, Deaths, Other environmental related diseases
Socio-economical ImpactsPotential: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Corruption
Environmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area
Institutional changes
Negotiated alternative solution
New legislation
Strengthening of participation
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
Proposal and development of alternatives:0
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:The lifetime of the current reactor is prologned by 50 % (20 years) without performing EIA, which would be in line with the ESPOO convention. Another reactor is planned to be constructed and is included in the development plans of Slovenia. No permanent site is selected for LILW storage (currently, LILW is stored at the reactor). The whole site (current reactor, storage and planned reactor) is located in a seizmically active area).
Sources & Materials
Juridical relevant texts related to the conflict (laws, legislations, EIAs, etc)

Regulation on the monitoring of radioactivity (Off. Gaz. RS, 20/07)

Decree on checking the radioactivity for shipments of metal scrap (Off. Gat. RS, 84/07),

Slovenian legislation relating to nuclear safety and radiation protection is comprehensive and in line withinternational standards. In the strictest sense of the practical application of the area regulated by the Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (ZVISJV14). In its legislation, Slovenia has transferred the basic standards of the International Agency forAtomic Energy. Wider field of nuclear and radiation safety is regulated by legislation on responsibility for nuclear damage, exports of dual-use items (ie, that could be used to make nuclear weapons), the transport of dangerous goods, regulations that govern the operation of utilities for radioactive waste management, the fund for the decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plant and disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear power plant, the permanent cessation of exploitation of uranium and prevention of the effects of mine uranium mine, physical security regulations in the field of protection and rescue, etc..

The most important legal instrument in the area of nuclear and radiation safety in the Republic of Slovenia is the Act on Protection against Ionizing Radiation and Nuclear Safety (ZVISJV, Off. Gaz.RS,102/04 – official consolidated text). Based on the ZVISJV, twenty-one implementing regulations were adopted at the beginning of 2007, namely four governmental decrees, six regulations issued by the minister of the environment, nine issued by the minister of health and two issued by the minister of the interior. In 2007 the adoption of implementing regulations continued and the following regulations were issued:

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

Jancar-Webster B (1993) Environmental Action in Eastern Europe: Responses to Crisis. Armonck, NY: M. E. Sharpe

Institut Jozef Stefan (Slovenian)
[click to view]

Agencija za radioaktivne odpadke (Slovenian)
[click to view]

Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (Slovenian)
[click to view]

Nuklearna elektrarna Krsko - Krsko Nuclear Power Plant
[click to view]

International Atomic Energy Agency
[click to view]

[click to view]

OECD Nuclear Energy Agency
[click to view]

Sklad NEK (Slovenian)

Other comments:Directly Affected People: Around 2200 people in 10 km radius
Meta information
Last update18/08/2019
Conflict ID:402
Legal notice / Aviso legal
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