Last update:
2014-06-24

Lake Turkana Wind Power Project, Kenya

Description:

In November 2006 collection of wind data for the Lake Turkana Wind Power project began, while discussions with the Kenya Government in 2009 culminated in signing a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) with Kenya Power in January 2010. This was re-affirmed and signed in September 2011.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Lake Turkana Wind Power Project, Kenya
Country:Kenya
State or province:Marsabit West County, North-eastern Kenya
Location of conflict:Loyangalani District,
Accuracy of locationMEDIUM (Regional level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict: 1st level:Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of conflict: 2nd level :Other
Windmills
Specific commodities:Wind
Land
Electricity
Project Details and Actors
Project details:

The Lake Turkana Wind Power Project (LTWP) aims to provide 300MW of reliable, low cost wind power to the Kenya national grid, equivalent to approximately 20% of the current installed electricity generating capacity.

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Project area:16,200
Level of Investment:810,660,000
Type of populationRural
Affected Population:500,000
Start of the conflict:2009
Company names or state enterprises:Norfund from Norway
Industrial Fund for Developing Countries (IF) from Denmark
Kemperman Paardekooper & Partners Africa (KP&P B.V.) from Netherlands
Aldwych International from United Kingdom
Vestas from Denmark - The LTWP consortium comprises KP&P B.V., Aldwych International, Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa IDC, Industrial Fund for Developing Countries (IFU) Denmark, and Norwegian Investment Fund for Developing Countries Norfund, Spanish Government http://www.vestas.com/
Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa (IDC) from South Africa
Relevant government actors:Kenya Electricity Transmission Company Ltd , Ministry of Energy
International and Finance InstitutionsAfrican Development Bank (AfDB)
European Investment Bank (EIB)
Standard Bank Plc from South Africa
Nedbank Capital of South Africa from South Africa
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Nature Kenya, BirdLife International, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)
Conflict and Mobilization
IntensityLOW (some local organising)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:International ejos
Local ejos
Forms of mobilization:Involvement of national and international NGOs
Objections to the EIA
Official complaint letters and petitions
Writing official letters to funding institutions that provide recommendations on the project for consideration.
Impacts of the project
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity)
Other Environmental impactsbird strikes and hazards
Socio-economical ImpactsPotential: Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Outcome
Project StatusPlanned (decision to go ahead eg EIA undertaken, etc)
Conflict outcome / response:None observed to far
Development of alternatives:Providing more detailed information through detailed bird survey in order to inform the choice of the most avian safe wind farm design. it is also extremely important to completely avoid migratory corridors of birds when choosing the site for wind farms and power lines.
Development of the outline Environmental and Social Management Plans provided in the ESIA into detailed plans before funding decisions are taken. These should set out the mechanism by which adaptive management will be used to address any unforeseen impacts, or impacts, which are found to be more severe, than predicted.
It is also important to clarify which funding Institution will lead compliance with the ESMP in order to ensure accountability.
Development of the outline Environmental and Social Management Plans provided in the projects ESIA into detailed plans before funding decisions are taken. These should set out the mechanism by which adaptive management will be used to address any unforeseen impacts, or impacts, which are found to be more severe, than predicted.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:NEMA approved the projects ESIA regardless of the fact that Nature Kenya had raised objections to it on the basis that adequate information was not provided in order to inform avian safe design and placement of wind turbines.
We are also uncertain whether the European Investment Bank will consider the recommendations given by Nature Kenya in order to prevent bird strikes/hazards before funding the project, prior to its implementation.
Sources and Materials
Related laws and legislations - Juridical texts related to the conflict

Environmental Management and Cordination Act (EMCA), Energy Act, National Environment Policy, Electric Power Act.

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

Kenya Vision 2030
[click to view]

Best Practice Guideline for Wind Farms, South Africa.
[click to view]

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

Lake Turkana Wind Power Project
[click to view]

Mega-Projects Kenya
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Serah Munguti
Last update24/06/2014
Comments
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