Last update:
2018-11-06

Saudi Arabia land leases and dam conflicts, Sudan

Sudan's traditional and pastoral communities have been suffering from the results of massive land grabs over the past decades.


Description:

In July 2016, the Sudanese parliament approved a bill that allows Saudi Arabia to reform and cultivate more than a million acres of land in eastern Sudan. The agreement has sparked criticism from the Nubian society in Sudan. Sudan will lease the one million feddan in the north-eastern area of the Upper Atbara and Setit dams to Saudi Arabia for a period of 99 years. (One feddan is equivalent to 1.038 acres or 0.42 hectares). The decision follows the National Assembly's approval of the framework agreement with Saudi Arabia. [1]

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Saudi Arabia land leases and dam conflicts, Sudan
Country:Sudan
State or province:north-eastern area of the Upper Atbara and Setit dams
Accuracy of locationMEDIUM (Regional level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture, Fisheries and Livestock Management)
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Intensive food production (monoculture and livestock)
Land acquisition conflicts
Dams and water distribution conflicts
Specific commodities:Land
Project Details and Actors
Project details

The total amount of arable land in Sudan is about 175 million feddan which is equivalent to 45% of the Arab world’s arable land, out of which only 31 million feddan are being used.

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Project area:420,000 (one million feddan)
Level of Investment:7,425,000,000.00
Type of populationRural
Start of the conflict:1984
Company names or state enterprises:Citadel Capital (Citadel) from Egypt
Al Rajhi International Investment Company from Saudi Arabia
Saudi National Agricultural Development Company (NADEC) from Saudi Arabia
Relevant government actors:Central Bank of Sudan
International and Finance InstitutionsThe World Bank (WB) from United States of America
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Sudan Democracy First Group: http://www.democracyfirstgroup.org
The Nubian Association against Dams
Radio Dabanga: https://www.dabangasudan.org/en
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Local ejos
Landless peasants
Pastoralists
Forms of mobilization:Land occupation
Street protest/marches
Threats to use arms
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Corruption
Criminalization of activists
Repression
Violent targeting of activists
Development of alternatives:Communal land tenure system needs to be legalized.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:Large scale land grabbing is still happening.
Sources & Materials
References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

[3] - Land Grab and Institutional Legacy of Colonialism: The Case of Sudan
[click to view]

[8] - The Implication of Land Grabbing on Pastoral Economy in Sudan
[click to view]

[7] - Land Use, Ownership and Allocation in Sudan
[click to view]

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

[1] - Bill allows Saudi Arabia to cultivate Sudan lands
[click to view]

[5] - Sudanese farmers held for working dam land
[click to view]

[2] - ‘Laws legalised land grabbing in Sudan’: Democracy First Group
[click to view]

[6] - ‘Laws legalised land grabbing in Sudan’: Democracy First Group
[click to view]

[4] - ‘Saudi land lease in eastern Sudan won’t benefit ordinary people’
[click to view]

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Sudan farmers fear 'foreign land grabs' - Al-Jazeera
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Christophe Maroun - [email protected]
Last update06/11/2018
Comments
Legal notice / Aviso legal
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