In 1984, the battery recycling enterprise Xuzhou Nonferrous Alloy Factory was established in Pizhou City, a county-level city of Jiangsu Province. Its main activity was to recycle lead-acid batteries. In addition to providing local jobs, the enterprise paid substantial taxes to the Pizhou government. In 1997, it was restructured into a limited liability company and renamed as Jiangsu Chunxing Alloy (Group) Co., Ltd. The recycling plant continued to expand, and in 2006, it built extensive new facilities near Xinsanhe Village. Besides the expansion-related land disputes, these facilities have generated large amounts of dust. The wastewater containing lead and other toxic heavy metal elements flowed into the river running past Xinsanhe and into the groundwater, contaminating the villagers’ crops.