Linyuan Industrial Park, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

In 1988, a pollution incident - also known as the Linyuan incident - gave rise to a mass protest in which victims barricaded the industrial park for three weeks, practically shutting down Taiwan’s petrochemical supply.


Description

Linyuan District used to be a town of Kaohsiung County, which is now part of Kaohsiung built up area which encompasses 10 cities (or districts) out of 18 in official Kaohsiung Metro Area. It is a seaside township near the estuary of the Kaoping River in southern Taiwan. Before the installment of a petrochemical zone in the 1970s, fishing and aquaculture was the main local livelihood. Industrialization brought about a grave subsistence crisis, as petrochemical plants recklessly extracted underground water and discharged their wastewater into the river and sea [1]. In November 1973, the proposal of “Ten Major Construction Projects” [2] including the construction of the Linyuan petrochemical industrial zone was announced at the fourth plenary session of the 10th Central Committee of Kuomintang.

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Basic Data
NameLinyuan Industrial Park, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
CountryTaiwan
ProvinceTaiwan
SiteLinyuan District, Kaohsiung City (used to be Linyuan Township, Kaohsiung County)
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Industrial and Utilities conflicts
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Chemical industries
Water treatment and access to sanitation (access to sewage)
Specific CommoditiesCrude oil
Chemical products
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsImportant events during the conflict [6,7]:

On 1988.9.20, heavy rain for 3 consecutive days caused wastewater overflow in the combined sewage treatment plant, resulting in heavy losses in aquaculture industry.

On 1988.9.22, a large number of dead fish appeared in the sea and fishing port in the Shanwei area, and the oil in the fishing port filled the sea surface. The residents suspected that the wastewater treatment plant in the industrial area of Linyuan caused the outflow of waste water, which resulted in the large number of deaths of fish and shrimp in the downstream villages.

On 1988.9.23, 200 - 300 villagers in Shanwei area surrounded the management center of Linyuan Industrial Park. They asked representatives of the Industrial Park for a compensation of NT $1 billion as well as to prevented the spread of pollution.

On 1988.10.4, government, industrial zone, and local resident representatives met at the Industrial Bureau Management Center for consultation. Some fishermen claimed that 7,600 people in three Shanwei villages should be compensated for 300,000 NTD per person; after further coordination, the residents asked for 100,000 NTD per person. If granted, the villagers would agree to resume with the work in the sewage treatment plant.

On 1988.10.5, residents also found the Shanwei fishing port full of dead fishes. The day after, Zhongyun, Fengyun, Xizhou, and Xixi Village joined the protest, demanding the same amount of compensation as the three Shanwei villages did.

On 1988.10.11, the Kaohsiung county reopened the negotiations. 1,000 residents from seven villages protested outside the management center and sewage treatment plant, but no result was achieved.

On 1988.10.12, residents gathered in groups in the open space around the factory to monitor the discharge of waste water. As a result, every petrochemical plant in the Linyuan Industrial Zone discharged waste water, and the residents demanded that the petrochemical plants be completely shut down. The industrial zone held an emergency meeting of 18 manufacturers and decided to allocate 100 million NTD to the Kaohsiung county government for the coordination, but work must be resumed on the 13th.

On 1988.10.13, 500 people from seven villages (East Shan, West Shan, North Shan, Zhongyun, Fengyun, Xizhou, Xixi) negotiated with the head of the Industry Bureau of the Ministry of Economic Affairs but without success. The next day, a large number of police stationed in the industrial area of Linyuan and the Minister of Economy, the Kaohsiung County Chief and the local representatives continued negotiations throughout the night.

On the evening of October 15, 1988, the government, the industrial zone and the residents reached a compensation agreement: each villager in the three villages of Shanwei was compensated 80,000 NTD, four villages, including Zhongyun, were paid 50,000 NTD per person, and other 12 villages received 10 million NTD in local construction subsidies. The total compensation was 1.27 billion NTD. Residents agreed to get 18 petrochemical plants back to work since 6pm.

On 1988.10.16, The 18 petrochemical plants in the Linyuan Industrial Zone have been resumed to operation one by one.

CPC Corporation Taiwan had several plants in the industrial park. No information on the other companies involved during that time could be found.
Project Area (in hectares)403
Level of Investment (in USD)NT $2 billion
Type of PopulationSemi-urban
Potential Affected Populationseveral thousands
Start Date22/09/1988
End Date16/10/1988
Company Names or State EnterprisesCPC Corporation, Taiwan (CPC) from Taiwan - operator of industrial plants
Relevant government actorsKaohsiung County Government, legislator, Ministry of economy
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Local government/political parties
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Fisher people
Forms of MobilizationBlockades
Development of a network/collective action
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Property damage/arson
Arguments for the rights of mother nature
Appeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Oil spills, Other Environmental impacts
Potential: Noise pollution
OtherPoisoning impacts on fisheries
Health ImpactsVisible: Accidents, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Other Health impacts
Potential: Infectious diseases, Occupational disease and accidents
Otherhigh incidences of cancer in the area
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Loss of livelihood, Militarization and increased police presence, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Other socio-economic impacts
Potential: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Increase in violence and crime, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..)
OtherReduced local social stability.

Reduction of manufactured products in petrochemical industry.

Negative impacts on the industry in the middle and lower reaches of the petrochemical industry chain.
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCompensation
Repression
Application of existing regulations
Project temporarily suspended
Do you consider this as a success?Not Sure
Why? Explain briefly.The local residents of the Linyuan incident received a total compensation of NT$ 1.3 billion. However, the pollution problem itself has not been completely solved. After the Linyuan incident, the local people are still fighting continually.
Sources and Materials
References

[4] Terao, T., 2002. AN INSTITUTIONAL ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION DISPUTES IN TAIWAN: CASES OF “SELF‐RELIEF”. The Developing Economies, 40(3), pp.284-304.
[click to view]

[5] Ho, M.S., 2014. Resisting Naphtha Crackers. A historical survey of environmental politics in Taiwan. China Perspectives, 2014(2014/3), pp.5-14.
[click to view]

公民社會下的環境運動:林園反三輕運動初探(The Environmental Movement in Civil Society: a preliminary study of the Anti-three Light Movement in Linyuan)
[click to view]

[1] Ho, M.S. and Su, F.S., 2008. Control by containment: the politics of institutionalizing pollution disputes in Taiwan. Environment and Planning A, 40(10), pp.2402-2418.
[click to view]

Links

[6] 林園事件: 全國最大的一個污染糾紛事件(Linyuan event: one of the largest pollution disputes around the country)
[click to view]

[3] 林园事件(Linyuan event)
[click to view]

[2] Ten Major Construction Projects (Wikipedia)
[click to view]

[7]林園石化工業區污染及反公害運動 by Citizen of the Earth, Taiwan
[click to view]

Other Documents

Dead fish Toxic wastewater from petrochemical plants caused biological death in Gaoping river.
[click to view]

Linyuan Industrial Zone 3 Petrochemical facilities are dense, stretching all the way to the river.
[click to view]

Linyuan Industrial Zone 1 Gray sky surrounds the Linyuan petrochemical plants
[click to view]

Linyuan Industrial Zone 2 Chimneys billowed with smoke.
[click to view]

Protest activities The crowd gathered in the streets to post banners against the pollution caused by the chemical plant.
[click to view]

News report on the Linyuan event Large numbers of fish died in Gaoping river, and local residents broke into the Linyuan Industrial Zone.
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorEnvJustice, ICTA-UAB/ NWAFU master students
Last update25/09/2018
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