Conflicts on lignite (brown coal) mining in Germany (west and east) are old. The EJatlas contains entries for several of them. They took a new turn in 2015 with the Ende Gelände movement which squarely linked up two issues: local damage from open cast coal mining and global climate change when coal is burnt. In 2014, brown coal (lignite) electricity production in Germany rose to its highest level since 1990, despite the country’s campaign to shift to green sources of energy. A strong movement arose against this. The activist John Jordan reported with enthusiasm in August 2015  : "I was with 1,500 others, many of whom had never broken any law for their beliefs before. Together we managed to shut down Europe’s biggest source of CO2 emissions: RWE’s lignite mines in the Rhineland in Germany. Around 800 of us were arrested, and hundreds of us refused to cooperate with the authorities by withholding our names and IDs. It was the world’s largest act of disobedience against the mining of fossil fuels – and it might be the spark that ignites a rising, cross-border movement of disobedience for climate justice." He continued: "The protest was called Ende Gelände (Here and no further) – and it was direct action at its best. Not a symbolic gesture that just tells a story and makes an injustice visible, but an action that targeted the very source of the problem and stopped it in its tracks. Of course, the stories from the day are important, and will help build confidence within the movement. But the actual stopping of CO2 emissions themselves, the fact that the lignite coal – the dirtiest type of coal in the world – was not dug out and burned that day, is what counts. Ende Gelände was a collective act of resistance that for once felt proportionate to the scale of the emergency: catastrophic climate change.".