After large quantities of fossil fuels were discovered in Alaska in 1968, discussion started around beginning Canadian resource extraction and development in the North, particularly Yukon and the Northwest Territories. By 1970 Pierre Trudeau’s government had already created policies on pipeline development with plans of looking north, and Canadian Arctic Gas Pipeline Ltd. along with Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd. created plans to run natural gas either from Alaska, across the Yukon, through the Mackenzie Valley south to Alberta and the U.S., or directly from the Mackenzie Delta to Alberta. The former was an idyllic development project and at the time would have been the longest pipeline in the world and quite an engineering marvel given the difficulties of building on permafrost and other geographical barriers set out by the Canadian North. The potential economic benefits of the project as well as the ability to expand southern infrastructure and control into the Canadian North through resource development was an attractive proposal. However, the local Aboriginal communities of the Mackenzie Valley saw issue with the pipeline and potential changes to their physical, social, economic, and environmental well being, resulting in a number of conflicts, land claims, and land disputes among stakeholders. Concerns over construction, environmental degradation, safety, and human impacts led to the appointment of Justice Thomas Berger to conduct an inquiry on the proposed pipelines and the potential environmental, cultural, social, and economic impacts they may have on Canada’s north and its people. By 1977, Berger had visited over 35 communities in 3 years to hear from all the involved stakeholders in Canada’s North and document their concerns. The 1977 report concluded that further study was necessary, especially with regards to Indigenous land claims, and that the pipeline should not be constructed given the vulnerable northern environment in the proposed development area. Berger recommended a 10-year moratorium on construction to allow for more baseline studies on environment, people, wildlife, and to better understand the economic effects this development would have on the area. The moratorium was also intended to give the Aboriginal communities involved time to settle their land claim settlements, and by 2000 the Inuvialuit, Gwich’in, and Sahtu peoples had their claims taken care of. These communities now had an interest in the economic prosperity of the pipelines, and when the initial proposals fell through Imperial Oil, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil and the Aboriginal Pipeline Group (made up of local communities with pipeline interests) proposed the $16.2 billion Mackenzie Gas Project to carry 34.3 million cubic m of natural gas about 1,200 km from the Beaufort Sea to northern Alberta. The plan was submitted to the NEB in 2004 and approved in 2010 with December of 2015 set as the deadline to begin construction. Changing economics and the falling price of natural gas resulted in Imperial wanting to delay construction further to ensure the economic feasibility of the project (as natural gas prices were dropping). The extension was granted by the NEB to the dismay of environmentalists, but by the end of 2017 Imperial Oil decided the Mackenzie Gas Project was no longer profitable enough in the North American natural gas market with new forms of competition and new technologies to construct, and declared the end of the nearly 50 year deliberation and development process.