Last update:

Mahan Coal Limited, India


Mahan Coal Limited is a 50:50 joint venture (JV) firm of Hindalco Industries (Aditya Birla Group) and Essar Power. Mahan Coal Limited (MCL) is going to extract coal from Mahan block of Singrauli fields in Madhya Pradesh. Coal produced by MCL will supply coal to the proposed power plants of both Essar and Hindalco. Essar Power is investing Rs 4,000 crore for a 1,000MW power project while Hindalco is setting up a 750-MW captive power plant with an estimated investment of Rs 2,400 crore. As per the lease agreement, Essar will use 60% of the coal output and Hindalco will take the remaining 40%. The mine, with proven reserves of 150m tonne of coal, will cater to the combined Rs 6,400 crore power projects being set up by the two conglomerates [1].

See more
Basic Data
Name of conflict:Mahan Coal Limited, India
State or province:Madhya Pradesh
Location of conflict:Singrauli
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Coal extraction and processing
Mineral ore exploration
Land acquisition conflicts
Specific commodities:Coal
Project Details and Actors
Project details

Mahan Coal Limited ('MCL'), a joint venture company between Hindalco lndustries Limited ('HIL') and Essar Power M.P Limited ('EPMPL'), has been granted a captive coal block ('Mahan Coal Block') in Singaruli District of Madhya Pradesh, which will mine coal for the two ventured companies. The total coal reserves are about 144 Million Tonnes with the grade of coal as E to F. The Mahan Coal Block isto produce 8.5 Million Tonnes of coal per annum by open cast mining system [5] The investment corresponds to INR 6,400 Crore, more than US$ 1 billion.

Project area:1,072
Level of Investment for the conflictive project1,040,000,000
Type of populationRural
Affected Population:14,000
Start of the conflict:2009
Company names or state enterprises:Aditya Birla Group from India
Essar Power Limited from India
Hindalco Industries Limited from India
Relevant government actors:Ministry of Coal, Government of India, Ministry of Enviornment & Forest, Madhya Pradesh Government
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Mahan Sangharsh Samiti (MSS), Greenpeace India, Kalpavriksh
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
International ejos
Local ejos
Social movements
Local scientists/professionals
Bollywood actor Abhay Deol (Green Peace Campaign)
Forms of mobilization:Boycotts of official procedures/non-participation in official processes
Development of a network/collective action
Development of alternative proposals
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Land occupation
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover
Potential: Desertification/Drought, Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Mine tailing spills
Health ImpactsPotential: Other environmental related diseases
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures
Project StatusUnder construction
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Negotiated alternative solution
Under negotiation
Proposal and development of alternatives:Greenpeace India demands a moratorium on all new coal mining activity in forest areas till the government sets criteria for inviolate forests (those closed to mining) through a transparent consultative process.The campaigners argue that renewable-energy can power our future as it will be cheaper and a healthier alternative [4]
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:If the project materalized, the forest will be lost. Forests need to be protected.
According to the MoEF note on Mahan, a range of factors go against the allocation of this area for coal mining including its richness of biodiversity. Former environment minister Jairam Ramesh said that he is not clear why such a good quality forest area should be broken up for such a partial requirement. With this the ministry recommended that an alternative coal linkage be provided for the power plants rather than grant approval to the Mahan coal block [6]
Sources & Materials
Juridical relevant texts related to the conflict (laws, legislations, EIAs, etc)

Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 with Amendments Made in 1988
[click to view]

Convention On Biological Diversity (INDIA)
[click to view]

[click to view]

National environment policy 2006
[click to view]

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

Singrauli: The Coal Curse

[click to view]

[1] Welcome to Mahan Coal Limited
[click to view]

[2] Indias poisonous coal use set to increase
[click to view]

[3] Villagers in Mahan forest protest marking of trees
[click to view]

[4] Actor Abhay Deol joins protest against coal mining in Singrauli
[click to view]

[5] Upcoming Projects
[click to view]

[6] Mera Bharat aur Mahan
[click to view]

Villagers in Mahan forest protest marking of trees
[click to view]

Mahan at all costs
[click to view]

[click to view]

[click to view]

Coal mines: Minister pulls up MP for coercing tribals
[click to view]

Green Clearance Watch
[click to view]

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Abhay Deol in Singrauli
[click to view]

When 1000 people come together to take back what is theirs, you have this!
[click to view]

Jungle na milenge dobara
[click to view]

Forests vs Coal Mining: Times Now exclusive feat. Abhay Deol
[click to view]

Junglistan - The Story of the Forest Dwellers (Full Version)
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Sohan Prasad Sha & Swapan Kumar Patra
Last update18/08/2019
Conflict ID:1009
Legal notice / Aviso legal
We use cookies for statistical purposes and to improve our services. By clicking "Accept cookies" you consent to place cookies when visiting the website. For more information, and to find out how to change the configuration of cookies, please read our cookie policy. Utilizamos cookies para realizar el análisis de la navegación de los usuarios y mejorar nuestros servicios. Al pulsar "Accept cookies" consiente dichas cookies. Puede obtener más información, o bien conocer cómo cambiar la configuración, pulsando en más información.