The Bangka Belitung Province is made up around 470 islands off the coast of Sumatra, out of which around 50 are inhabited. The two main islands Bangka and Belitung measure 1.6 million ha in total, out of which 230.000 ha are covered by palm oil plantations. Over the period 2000-2012, the province experienced one of the highest deforestation rates in the country .
According to the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry, only 28% of the approximately 657,500 ha of forest on the two islands can be said to be in ‘good condition’. As much as 60% are in a 'critical condition', while the condition of the remaining 12% is said to be 'rather critical'. Of the total forest cover 29,807 ha have protected status, and around 70% of this forest has been cleared or destroyed as a result of oil palm plantation establishment and tin mining. Projections show that if the current trend is not broken the remaining healthy forest is in great danger .
Mangrove forests used to cover around 122,000 ha, out of which 60-70% has been degraded as a consequence of palm oil production and tin mining. Loss of mangrove forest generates ecological impacts in terms of vulnerability to high tides, winds, floods and tsunamis, as well as it increases the incidence of erosion, siltation and abrasion  . Furthermore, both the terrestrial and off-coast biodiversity of the two islands has deteriorated dramatically  .
Conflicts between communities and companies arise due to dumping of waste from palm oil mills in rivers and watersheds, as can be exemplified by the cases of Desa Kembiri on Belitung Island and Desa Puding on Bangka Island, where villagers have protested in response to pollution of the Kembiri River and Telang River respectively   . Several cases of illegal expansion beyond corporate land use permits have been documented, just as conflicts related to unclear ownership conditions and land boundaries, an example being Desa Tempilang on Bangka Island . Further, land has been sold and plantations have been established without obtaining prior and informed consent by affected communities, as in the cases of Desa Riding Panjang and Desa Pugul on Bangka Island  . Further, companies are operating without formal licenses, as in the case of Kota Kapur y Desa Penagan on Bangka Island .
Community-company conflicts continue to take place in the province. Citizens and loca/national organisations have protested at the local government, and also directly at plantation sites, but have at best been able to stop activities in the field temporarily, as in the case of Desa Pugul, earlier mentioned .