In March, 2013 hundreds of Matsés gathered together on the border between Brazil and Peru to call on the two state’s governments to halt any and all oil exploration in Matsés territory. Around 2,200 Matsés live along the Brazil-Peru border in the Brazilian Javari Valley Indigenous Territory and a legally titled 490,000-hectare area in Peru; a Brazilian NGO called Instituto Socioambiental claims there are 3,500 Matsés total, with 1,700 on the Peruvian side and almost 1,600 on the Brazilian side. Movement across the border within Matsés territory is reportedly very common. (1) (3) In 2012 Pacific Rubiales, a Canadian-based company, started oil exploration in the region. The project is worth $36 million, and will entail running miles of seismic testing lines through areas where uncontacted peoples live along with the drilling of exploratory wells. Perupetro, the Peruvian government body that issued the exploratory permits in 2007, allows for activities in around 1.5 million hectares of land estimated to hold almost one billion barrels of oil. There are concerns that the ecological impact would also be felt in Brazil’s Javari Valley due to headwater pollution resulting from the seismic testing and well construction. (1) (3) The Matsés claim they were not consulted by the Peruvian government prior to them granting the concessions, in violation of a legally binding agreement signed by Peru in 1994. Pacific Rubiales has stated that this right did not apply before 2012. (3) The two concessions cover more than half of Matsés titled community land in Peru and protected natural areas. One of the concessions includes a large area of land that is currently a proposed reserve for indigenous people living in what Peruvian law terms ‘voluntary isolation’.