The history of Myanmar's Mawchi mines spans back over more than two centuries, according to a civil society report by the Molo Women Mining Watch Network (MWMWN) published in 2012 . Small-scale mining activities were first carried out by locals in the early 19th century, who sold the minerals in the local town of Toungoo. When the British heard about the deposits in 1830, agreements with the local ruler of Kyepogyi were made to start tin mining in the area. The high-quality tin and tungsten (wolfram) from the mines was soon sold on world markets and the area became known as “Little England”. The British operated the mines for no less than 112 years (from 1830 to 1942). Workers from China and Nepal were brought in during that time. Over the years, the Mawchi mines turned into one of the most important sources of tungsten, globally. Between 1939-40, the mine produced 60% of total production in Burma, which accounted for about 17.4% of world tungsten output [1,2].