Nenets are an indigenous group that inhabits Yama peninsula, known as the Yamal-Nenets autonomous region in Russian Siberia  . Being a nomad group, the Nenets migrate between forests or taiga to their grazing lands way up to Russia's northern fringe .
In the 1990s, however, as 90% of Russian gas can be found on the Yamal peninsula, Gazprom company under the Yamal LNG (Liquefied natural gas) initiated preparations for one of its biggest gas projects, the Yamal Megaproject gas exploitation project  .
Due to this mega project, Nentes' traditional lands have been transformed and environmental degradation started to take place . “For them it is fortune, for us terror,” said 20-year-old herder. “The fact they’ve found deposits here is catastrophic”, another member of Nenets community stated . Due to this project, some Nentes members left their traditional lands on the peninsula, as they refused a life in permanent settlements .
For those who stayed, the main problems are biophysical land degradation and the disappearance of cultural tradition. Their nomadic lifestyle and migration routes have been disrupted by gas infrastructure, pollution, and the effects of climate change .
But Nenets depend on reindeer-herding for their cultures and livelihoods. For example, warmer climate in the Arctic lead to a denser shrub growth across the tundra, making it more difficult for Nenets to gather and move reindeer herds. Extreme temperatures can cause freezing rain and ice that the reindeer herds can not graze or pass across easily . In addition, the new pipelines and other industrial infrastructure are creating further obstacles to traditional migration routes .
Many activists from the Nenets community, especially the Forest Nenets, involved in Indigenous rights group alliances of Siberia, have publicly raised their concerns about the environmental challenges facing their community in order to raise awareness about the environmental and cultural issues of gas and oil industries on their traditional territories . The activists have been holding seminars and training sessions, including legal issues, economic development, pollution and climate change .
In 2019, a Moscow court ordered the closing down of the Indigenous rights group, saying that the organization has not provided the correct documentation which is needed to be recognized by the Russian law . But the group argued how the Russian Government accuses the community of trying to thwart Russian economic development .
The group’s allies say "this is a nonsense" and continue: "the alleged sentence is nothing but a pretext to silence the organization" . “It’s not a legal issue. It’s a political one,” said the director of the Center for Support of Indigenous People of the North/Russian Indigenous Training Center. “There’s a big conflict of interest between corporations and indigenous people” . The aim is “to frighten the society” .
"The organization also argued how the government built the gas plant ignoring climate change and crisis issues. The organization also argues how the development of such huge gas fields has other issues with permafrost holes, that can explode very easily, bringing a danger of large scale accidents to the community as well .
Gazprom, on the other hand, argues how they provide the Yamal province with $665 million a year, but did not comment on how exactly the money is distributed and to whom . Herders and administration officials argue that compensations for pasture degradation and land are meant for local government but they do not reach Nenets people . The community still argues how they do not want their cultural landscapes change: “I want my grandchildren to see our land as it is: beautiful, fresh, full of berries and deer”