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Nawalgarh Special Economic Zone, RJ, India


Rajasthan State Industrial Development and Investment Corporation Ltd. (RIICO) planned to set up a Special Economic Zone in Nawalgarh District of Rajasthan. Accordingly, in 2007 the state government notified 5,769 hectares of land for three major cement producing companies for their plants and auxiliary mines. It granted over 4,600 ha to Ultratech Cement of Aditya Birla Group, 780 ha to Shree Cement of Rajasthan and 825 ha to India Cements of Chennai [1].

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Nawalgarh Special Economic Zone, RJ, India
State or province:Rajasthan
Location of conflict:District - Nawalgarh
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Industrial and Utilities conflicts
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Other industries
Land acquisition conflicts
Building materials extraction (quarries, sand, gravel)
Specific commodities:Land
Project Details and Actors
Project details

Land of about 20 villages of Nawalgarh block is being acquired for proposed cement factories. Ultra Tech of Birla Group, Shree Cement of Bangur Group, ICL of Srinivasan Group are 5,769 hectres of land to be acquired for their projects [2].

Project area:5,769
Type of populationRural
Affected Population:75,000-100,000
Start of the conflict:2007
Company names or state enterprises:Ultra Tech Cement (Ultra Tech) from India
Shree Cement from India
India Cement Ltd from India
Rajasthan State Industrial Development and Investment Corporation Ltd. (RIICO) from India
Aditya Birla Group from India
Bangur Group from India
Relevant government actors:Government of Rajasthan
Ministry of Mines, Government of India
Rajasthan High Court
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Bhoomi Adhigrahan Virodhi Sangharsh Samiti
Rajasthan Bijli Kisan Union (RBKU).
Nawalgarh Kisan Sangharsh Samiti
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Local ejos
Landless peasants
Local government/political parties
Social movements
Ethnically/racially discriminated groups
Forms of mobilization:Blockades
Development of alternative proposals
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Hunger strikes and self immolation
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Waste overflow, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Land dispossession
Potential: Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Specific impacts on women, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusProposed (exploration phase)
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Court decision (failure for environmental justice)
Strengthening of participation
Under negotiation
Withdrawal of company/investment
One of the three companies withdrew for the people's protests.
Proposal and development of alternatives:The proposed land marked for the cement factories are rich in agriculture and have potential for increasing agricultural activity. If government support agriculture by giving loans to farmers arranges irrigation facilities etc., conditions would improve in this area.
However the government is not very keen to do this [2].
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Not Sure
Briefly explain:The project would adversely affect the natural resources and environment of this area. Also, land has been acquired in illegal matters.
The High Court ruled in the Company’s favour.
The protesting organizations said that they will not give consent for the acquisition and may go for other means (may be violent) of protest [1]. With the people’s protest India Cement Ltd. has abandoned the project. The organizations stressed that they will continue this mass movement till the other two companies stop their plans and projects.
Sources & Materials
Juridical relevant texts related to the conflict (laws, legislations, EIAs, etc)

SEZ Act, 2005
[click to view]

The Rajasthan Tenancy (Amendment) Bill, 2010
[click to view]

[1] Curse of limestone
[click to view]

[2] Nawalgarh Nandigram of Rajasthan Special Economic Zone Turns into Special Suffering Zone
[click to view]

[3] RIICO fails to Cement Project
[click to view]

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

A farmer who sold his land and house now regrets and complains that he was cheated by the Shri Cement company
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Swapan Kumar Patra
Last update18/08/2019
Conflict ID:1563
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