Nawalgarh Special Economic Zone, RJ, India


Rajasthan State Industrial Development and Investment Corporation Ltd. (RIICO) planned to set up a Special Economic Zone in Nawalgarh District of Rajasthan. Accordingly, in 2007 the state government notified 5,769 hectares of land for three major cement producing companies for their plants and auxiliary mines. It granted over 4,600 ha to Ultratech Cement of Aditya Birla Group, 780 ha to Shree Cement of Rajasthan and 825 ha to India Cements of Chennai [1].

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Basic Data
NameNawalgarh Special Economic Zone, RJ, India
SiteDistrict - Nawalgarh
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Industrial and Utilities conflicts
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Land acquisition conflicts
Other industries
Building materials extraction (quarries, sand, gravel)
Specific CommoditiesCement
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsLand of about 20 villages of Nawalgarh block is being acquired for proposed cement factories. Ultra Tech of Birla Group, Shree Cement of Bangur Group, ICL of Srinivasan Group are 5,769 hectres of land to be acquired for their projects [2].
Project Area (in hectares)5,769
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population75,000-100,000
Start Date2007
Company Names or State EnterprisesUltra Tech Cement (Ultra Tech) from India
Shree Cement from India
India Cement Ltd from India
Rajasthan State Industrial Development and Investment Corporation Ltd. (RIICO) from India
Aditya Birla Group from India
Bangur Group from India
Relevant government actorsGovernment of Rajasthan

Ministry of Mines, Government of India

Rajasthan High Court

Environmental justice organisations and other supportersBhoomi Adhigrahan Virodhi Sangharsh Samiti

Rajasthan Bijli Kisan Union (RBKU).

Nawalgarh Kisan Sangharsh Samiti

The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Local ejos
Landless peasants
Local government/political parties
Social movements
Ethnically/racially discriminated groups
Forms of MobilizationBlockades
Development of alternative proposals
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Hunger strikes and self immolation
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Waste overflow, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Land dispossession
Potential: Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Specific impacts on women, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusProposed (exploration phase)
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCompensation
Court decision (failure for environmental justice)
Strengthening of participation
Under negotiation
Withdrawal of company/investment
One of the three companies withdrew for the people's protests.
Development of AlternativesThe proposed land marked for the cement factories are rich in agriculture and have potential for increasing agricultural activity. If government support agriculture by giving loans to farmers arranges irrigation facilities etc., conditions would improve in this area.

However the government is not very keen to do this [2].
Do you consider this as a success?Not Sure
Why? Explain briefly.The project would adversely affect the natural resources and environment of this area. Also, land has been acquired in illegal matters.

The High Court ruled in the Company’s favour.

The protesting organizations said that they will not give consent for the acquisition and may go for other means (may be violent) of protest [1]. With the people’s protest India Cement Ltd. has abandoned the project. The organizations stressed that they will continue this mass movement till the other two companies stop their plans and projects.
Sources and Materials

SEZ Act, 2005
[click to view]

The Rajasthan Tenancy (Amendment) Bill, 2010
[click to view]


[1] Curse of limestone
[click to view]

[2] Nawalgarh Nandigram of Rajasthan Special Economic Zone Turns into Special Suffering Zone
[click to view]

[3] RIICO fails to Cement Project
[click to view]

Media Links

A farmer who sold his land and house now regrets and complains that he was cheated by the Shri Cement company
[click to view]

Other Documents

Special Suffering ZOne Source:
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorSwapan Kumar Patra
Last update15/10/2014