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Solidarność Transport Hub (CPK), Poland

In a local referendum residents of Baranów voted against construction of a multi-modal transport hub on over 66 square kilometers of villages and farmland. Plans for the Central Transport Hub include an airport, airport city, road and rail infrastructure.


On 7th November 2017 the Polish government approved a plan to build a new mega-airport, Solidarity Airport (Polish: Port Lotniczy Solidarność). The preliminary location was confirmed to be in Baranów commune, a rural area between Warsaw, Poland’s capital city, and Łódź, Poland’s third largest city and a former textile manufacturing hub [1]. A new airport had been the subject of debate since 2006. A 30 square kilometer site is earmarked for the airport, within a larger project area of 66.2 square kilometers [2]. The area allocated for the new airport is characterized by villages and small parcels of cultivated land [1]. Baranów is a small village with its church spire jutting above apple and pear groves [3].

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Solidarność Transport Hub (CPK), Poland
State or province:Grodzisk Mazowiecki County
Location of conflict:Gmina Baranów
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Urban development conflicts
Ports and airport projects
Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)
Land acquisition conflicts
Specific commodities:Land
Project Details and Actors
Project details

The beginning of construction works on Solidarity Airport are scheduled for 2023, and it will be complete by mid-2027.

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Project area:6,620
Level of Investment for the conflictive projectAt least 11,000,000,000
Type of populationRural
Affected Population:tens of thousands
Start of the conflict:23/02/2018
Company names or state enterprises:Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego (BGK) from Poland - Possible involvement in financing the airport project
LOT Polish Airlines (LOT) from Poland - The new airport is expected to be a new hub for LOT Polish AIrlines
Polski Fundusz Rozwoju (Polish Development Fund) (PFR) from Poland - Commission map of potential airport site in 2008. Possible involvement in financing the airport project
Polish Aviation Group (PGL) from Poland - PGL aims to capitalise on the planned new airport
Arup from United Kingdom - Techical adviser
Egis Poland Sp. z o.o from France - co-contractor of the technical-economic-environmental study for the project entitled: "Construction of the CPK Railway Junction"
JAF-GEOTECHNIKA Sp. z o.o from Poland - co-contractor of the technical-economic-environmental study for the project entitled: "Construction of the CPK Railway Junction"
PERN S.A. from Poland - contractor of fuel infrastructure for the CPK
Relevant government actors:Government of Poland
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:- Stowarzyszenie ZANIM POWSTANIE LOTNISKO - CPK (BEFORE THE AIRPORT - CPK' Association)
- Społeczna Rada ds. CPK (Social Council for CPK)
- inicjatywa społeczna 'Nie dla projektów CPK w całej Polsce' (social initiative 'Not for CPK projects all over Poland')
- grupa "StopCPK" (group "Stop for CPK")
- grupa "Skreśleni przez CPK (Group "Deleted by CPK")
- Fundacja Inlegis (Inlegis Foundation)
- Agrounia (foundation)
- inicjatywa "Klimat dla Rolnictwa" ('Climate for Agriculture' initiative)
- Stowarzyszenie Społeczne - Stare Budy (Social Association - Stare Budy)
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityMEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Social movements
Forms of mobilization:Blockades
Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Referendum other local consultations
Street protest/marches
Arguments for the rights of mother nature
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Global warming, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Health ImpactsPotential: Other Health impacts, Other environmental related diseases
Other Health impactsIllnesses caused by pollutants emitted by aircraft
Socio-economical ImpactsPotential: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Other socio-economic impacts
Project StatusProposed (exploration phase)
Conflict outcome / response:Court decision (undecided)
New legislation
Strengthening of participation
Under negotiation
Proposal and development of alternatives:Some critics of the airport project argue that the money allocated for it would be better spent on highways, railways, and upgrading the existing Warsaw Chopin Airport.[3]
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Not Sure
Sources & Materials
Juridical relevant texts related to the conflict (laws, legislations, EIAs, etc)

[23] Ustawa z dnia 10 maja 2018 r. o Centralnym Porcie Komunikacyjnym (The Act of 10 May 2018 on the Central Communication Port).
[click to view]

[24] The government bill on the improvement of the investment process of the Central Communication Port.
[click to view]

[25] Government bill amending the act on real estate management and certain other acts
[click to view]

[1] Polish government plans mega-airport and aerotropolis, Global Anti-Aerotropolis Movement (GAAM), 16 November 2017
[click to view]

[2] New Central Polish Airport (Lodz), CAPA (Centre for Aviation),
[click to view]

[3] Why Poland Is Planning Europe’s Biggest Airport, Bloomberg, 3 October 2018
[click to view]

[4] Plans for Poland’s Mega-Airport Progress Rapidly, The National Law Review, 24 April 2018
[click to view]

[5] Polish lawmakers approve divisive plans for new airport, Associated Press, 11 May 2018
[click to view]

[6] Centralne lotnisko w gminie Baranów. Wojewoda zgodził się na referendum,, 24 May 2018
[click to view]

[7] Poland’s New Law on the Central Communications Port Takes Effect, But Questions Remain, O-I-CEE! Central Europe Legal News and Views Blog, 13 June 2018
[click to view]

[8] Local residents oppose new Central Airport, WBJ (Warsaw Business Journal), 18 June 2018
[click to view]

[9] Poland faces pushback on plans for Mega Airport development, NEWEUROPE, 9 October 2018
[click to view]

[10] New Polish Aviation group gets off the ground, Poland Radio, 11 October 2018
[click to view]

[11] Oksiuta A. (2019 March 7). Powstała rada społeczna ds. Centralnego Portu Komunikacyjnego (A social council for the Central Tranport Port was established). PAP website.
[click to view]

[12] Nehring E. (2022, Juna 27). Grunty pod CPK. Rusza pierwsza pula w Programie Dobrowolnych Nabyć (Grunty pod CPK. Rusza pierwsza pula w Programie Dobrowolnych Nabyć).
[click to view]

[13] (2021, May 5). "Nie" dla CPK. Społeczna Rada ds. CPK szuka sprawiedliwości w sądzie ("No" for CPK. The Social Council for CPK seeks justice in court).
[click to view]

[15] TVN24 (2021, December 16). W kierunku przedstawicieli CPK poleciały jajka. Horała: jestem oburzony (Eggs flew towards the representatives of the CPK. Horała: I am indignant).
[click to view]

[16] Osowski J. (2022, January 8). Modlitewna ofensywa w sprawie centralnego lotniska w Baranowie. "Pod kościoły na traktorach!" (Prayer offensive for the central airport in Baranów. "For churches on tractors!").
[click to view]

[17] Walków M. (2022, June 14). Dwa pasy startowe, trzy stacje kolejowe i tunel. Pokazali, jak ma wyglądać Centralny Port Komunikacyjny (Two runways, three train stations and a tunnel. They showed what the Central Transport Port should look like).
[click to view]

[18] Polsatnews (2022, June 20). Centralny Port Komunikacyjny. Ogólnopolskie protesty. Które drogi będą blokowane? (Central Communication Port. Nationwide protests. Which roads will be blocked?).
[click to view]

[19] Jabłczyński K. (2022, June 27). Protest pod siedzibą CPK. Przeciwko dotychczasowym i planowanym przez spółkę działaniom. CPK zamiast tego zachęca do udziału w konsultacjach (Protest at the seat of the CPK. Against the activities planned by the company to date. CPK encourages you to participate in consultations instead). Warszawa.NaszeMiasto website.
[click to view]

[20] Lewińska K. (2022, June 30). Solidarnie przeciw lotnisku „Solidarność” (Solidarity against "Solidarity" airport). Krytyka
[click to view]

[21] Krupa-Dąbrowska R. (2022, July 22). Budowa CPK kosztem mieszkańców - Sejm uchwalił kontrowersyjną ustawę (Construction of the CPK at the expense of the inhabitants - the Sejm passed a controversial act).
[click to view]

[22] (2022, February 28). Zmiany w odszkodowaniach za grunty wywłaszczone na cele publiczne dotkną nie tylko właścicieli działek pod CPK (Changes in compensation for land expropriated for public purposes will affect not only the owners of plots for CPK).
[click to view]

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

[26] Post of the "Deleted for CPK" group on Facebook
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Rose Bridger, Stay Grounded, email: [email protected]
Last update01/08/2022
Conflict ID:3961
Legal notice / Aviso legal
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