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Nile Basin Reforestation Project, Uganda


The Nile Basin Reforestation Project is a deal between the Ugandan Government represented by the National Forest Authority and the World Bank BioCarbon Fund, detailing improved conservation management practices in the Rwoho Central Forest Reserve gazetted woodland, including the reforestation of degraded grasslands to create 341.9 ha of timber plantations (pine and mixed native species) and sequester 29,795 t CO2-e. The project became the first African forestry project to be registered under the CDM in August 2009.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Nile Basin Reforestation Project, Uganda
Accuracy of locationLOW (Country level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Biodiversity conservation conflicts
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Plantation conflicts (incl. Pulp
Specific commodities:Biological resources
Carbon offsets
Ecosystem Services
Project Details and Actors
Project details

The Uganda Nile Basin Reforestation project establishes 2,000 hectares of pine and mixed native species plantations in the Rwoho Central Forest Reserve, grassland areas previously degraded due to deforestation and erosion. 29795 t of CO2-e offsets will be created.

Project area:2,000
Type of populationRural
Company names or state enterprises:National Forest Authority of Uganda (NFA) from Uganda
Relevant government actors:Government of Uganda, Government of Italy (Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea)
International and Finance InstitutionsWorld Bank BioCarbon fund
The World Bank (WB) from United States of America
World Bank Carbon Finance Scheme
Clean Development Mechanism Executive Board (CDM Executive Board)
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change/CDM (UNFCC)
International Bank For Reconstruction And Development (IBRD) - It operates as the Trustee for the BioCarbon Fund
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Rwoho Environmental Conservation and Protection Association (RECPA)
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityLATENT (no visible organising at the moment)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
International ejos
Local ejos
Forms of mobilization:Official complaint letters and petitions
Street protest/marches
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover
Potential: Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil erosion, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Land dispossession
Potential: Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Under negotiation
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Not Sure
Briefly explain:Communities have protested against their ‘denial of access’ to forest resources by local communities, insensitive management styles, and a lack of opportunity for communities to voice their concerns’.
Sources & Materials
Related laws and legislations - Juridical texts related to the conflict

Uganda Forestry and Tree Planting Act

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

Carbon Finance Unit
[click to view]

"The CDM Cannot Deliver the Money to Africa.", chapter 5
[click to view]

CDMs documents
[click to view]

The CDM Cannot Deliver the Money to Africa. Why the carbon trading gamble won’t save the planet from climate change, and how African civil society is resisting, EJOLT REPORT
[click to view]

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Norwatch (2000) ‘Norwegian Tree Plantations, Carbon Credits and Land Conflicts in Uganda’

Carbon trading in Africa, A critical review (Institute of Security Studies)
[click to view]

TimberWatch (2009) ‘Potential Impacts of Tree Plantation Projects under the CDM An African Case Study

Other comments:For the companies involved, please review the CDM documents.
For the NFA 2004-05 was the first year of operations and the institution received activity-specific funding from two donor arrangements:
1) Under the Forest Resource Management and Conservation Project from the EC/European Development Fund the NFA receives 2.6 million euros, ending 2006. 2006 is the last year of the programme, with an estimated funding of 1.6 million euros.
2) UK Department for International Development and Norway provided 3.3 million euros as a Start-Up Fund to co-fund infrastructure development and to provide working capital for the establishment phase of the NFA. The programme ends 2007, and 2.5 million euros remains for 2006 and 2007.
Meta information
Contributor:Patrick Bond, University of KwaZulu-Natal (Centre for Civil Society)
Last update25/06/2014
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