The Obskaya – Bovanenkovo railway is related to Gazprom’s Yamal gas megaproject in the Arctic Russia. By expanding the railroad communication, the Yamal project ensures the delivery of technical equipment, construction materials and transportation of personnel to Yamal gas fields .
Furthermore, Obskaya – Bovanenkovo ralway construction includes a bridge with 3.9 kilometers in length. It is perhaps the world’s longest bridge in the Arctic Circle. The bridge crosses the Yuribey river . However, the waters and banks of Yuribey form a unique ecosystem of great historical and cultural value for traditional indigenous groups --- the Nenets are nomadic reindeer herders .
The Yuribay river is a breeding ground for fish species, such as nelma and muksun. Rare bird species listed in Russia’s Red Book of Endangered Species nest and breed on the river brinks. In summer, reindeer are born on pastures around the river .
Furthermore the Yuribey river has sacred significance for the Nenets. There are many legends associated with the river. Nenets offer ritual gifts and sacrifices to the river. Nenets never catch fish in the same place, so that the river could rest. Birds are hunted for food only. Nenets take from nature only as much as they need to sustain their lives  .
Fish is a critical resource all year round, especially during the long summer migration. Particularly among Nenets people, there is a consciousness about maintaining fish populations. The spring hunt for geese remains as a significant social event as well; "it provides an opportunity for sedentarized Nenets to join their nomadic relatives in the tundra” .
However, Gazprom argues how the bridge was designed in such a way that not even a single structural elements could harm the traditional lifestyles of indigenous peoples and Yamal’s environment . For Nenets nevertheless, the unveiling of the most recent railway construction of the Yamal gas project constitutes yet another serious challenge to their traditional way of life. Indeed, the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) and the Stakeholder Engagement Plan of the Yamal LNG project include a large section on the potential impacts for the indigenous population .
Nenets argue that modern infrastructure is rapidly developing on and around their traditional lands .
Studies found that eleven sacred sites were located within the Yamal LNG project area. Other impacts, however, are alleviated by mitigation measures such as the installation of crossing paths for reindeer, the development of a complaint mechanism, or holding workshops for industrial workers on how to communicate with reindeer herders .
Regarding the railway project, environmentalist also expressed their concerns, arguing that the railway line stretches across hundreds of kilometers of the Yamal tundra, all of it environmentally vulnerable permafrost areas .
The Nenets hadn’t been previously alerted to any development or construction projects on the Peninsula . (Russia has not yet ratified the ILO 169 Convention).