In 2018, the government of Canada launched a report called the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Roadmap, that are nuclear reactors, but smaller in size than conventional nuclear reactors. The project is aimed at bringing awareness about Canada's SMR opportunities by many interested stakeholders, industry, utility companies and provincial and territorial governments. This interest has evolved partially due to a solution for cutting greenhouse gas emissions [1;3].
As a result of the recommendations made from the SMR Roadmap, the SMR Action Plan aims to build on these recommendations. According to the government of Canada, interest in SMR development has increased since the launch of the Action Plan, with many more partners becoming involved .
The SMR technology is being promoted mostly for remote communities and off-grid mining operations, which promoters claim pay a lot for electricity due to them being reliant on diesel generators, while the transportation and storage of diesel is expensive. But a published report claims that there are problems related to cost-effectiveness of SMR electricity and factories to produce SMRs [2;5].
While the government has invested tens of millions of dollars in nuclear manufacturers so far, SMR technology still remains in a research and development phase. Opposition from many environmental groups, political parties and women in leadership positions has intensified recently through the continued push for nuclear power .
SMR has faced much criticism by the opposition, especially due to the government pushing for SMR technology as a viable source of renewable energy along with solar and wind . But the opposition raise concerns that there is still the unsolved problem of the toxic waste that SMRs will produce, similar to waste generated from conventional nuclear power plants .
The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) in the U.S issued a report entitled "´advanced´ isn't always better" by Edwin Lyman who is the director of of nuclear power safety in the UCS Climate and Energy Program. In their report, the author highlights concerns that molten salt reactors, which is the same SMR technology that is being developed in Canada, will result in challenges for nuclear security, which could result in difficulties in accounting for the nuclear material accurately as the liquid fuel flows through the reactor, raising concerns about nuclear security for countries interested in the development of SMRs .
Dozens of Canadian based environmental organisations, along with three Canadian political parties have all expressed their opposition to the SMR Action Plan in a media release launched by the Canadian Environmental Law Association [6;10].
There has also been opposition expressed from the Assembly of First Nations in Canada, who are a political organisation representing status First Nation members in Canada  where in 2018, a Special Chiefs Assembly passed a unanimous resolution demanding that the federal government cease funding and support of the SMR program [10;12]. They express concerns in the resolution stating that "nuclear reactors, regardless of size, produce bi-products and radioactive waste material that will be toxic and dangerous to human health for thousands of years" and expresses concerns that there is no permanent nuclear waste storage solution in Canada presently .
The political and environmental groups express concern that the government is funding new nuclear development without a parliamentary review, and criticise their public consultation process, as individuals and groups could only comment on the plan once they had signed a statement of principles in support of the SMR plan .