Two agro-industrial companies, Olam International and SIAT Gabon, are involved in the large-scale development of palm oil and rubber plantations in locations spread out around Gabon. The plantations being developed by Olam are by far the largest. The Gabonese government has allocated a total of 300,000ha to the company. Olam, which has had timber concessions in Gabon since 1999, but only obtained the palm and rubber land in the late 2000’s, wants to develop at least 180,000 hectares by 2018/2019, including 100,000 hectares of industrial palm oil plantations and up to 30,000 hectares of smallholder palm plantations and 50,000 hectares of rubber plantations. The development of the plantations involves the clearing of large areas of pristine tropical forest that communities depend on for their livelihoods and will see an influx of people seeking work in previously remote rural communities. The project will benefit from a 16-year income tax holiday, and exemptions on payment of duties or tax on machinery, gas, oil, fertilisers and other inputs. Land insecurity, food insecurity, working conditions and resource management issues are other concerns.