The Orang Rimba are indigenous to the forests of the provinces of Jambi, Riau and South Sumatra. Today around 2700 Orang Rimba live on Sumatra island . To the Orang Rimba, whose lives were traditionally characterized by semi-nomadism, the forest is not only a source of life but also of big cultural and spiritual importance and constitutes the foundation the Orang Rimba identity and traditions  . Since the 1970s Sumatra has lost much of its forest cover due to large-scale land clearing for oil palm plantation establishment, creation of residential areas and industrial logging . Most of the forest managed by the Orang Rimba has been converted into large-scale rubber, pulp and oil palm plantations, depriving them of the possibility to live solely in and off the forest. Due to physical displacement and forced transformation to sedentary ways of lives, many Orang Rimba are now engaged in agricultural labor or have migrated to beg in roadside areas and cities, are occupaing in plantation sites . Resettlement housing has been provided by the state, but has naturally served as poor compensation . Naturally, the Orang Rimba are negatively affected by land clearing through fire and resulting air pollution . The largest share of Orang Rimba can be found in Western and Northern Jambi respectively, as well as the Bukit Duabelas forest in the central part of the province. In 1984, the Orang Rimba started lobbying for a designation of the Bukit Duabelas as a nature reserve. The efforts were fruitless up until the year 2000, when the Ministry of Forestry made a decision to turn 60.500 ha of the forest into a national park . The Bukit Duabelas National Park is unique in that its purpose is not only to protect the ecological richness of the forest, but also the livelihood of the indigenous group . It is currently the only place where the Orang Rimba still live according to traditional believes and practices . However, despite granting the group rights to hunt, plant and gather within it, the park declaration makes no reference to customary (masyarakat adat) rights of the Orang Rimba to the forest, or any other part of its traditional territory. However, the Orang Rimba and its supporting NGOs interpret the declaration as granting such rights, which has been a source of dispute . Further, there are reports of the park boundaries not being respected by companies operating in its surroundings . Up until 2000, approximately 21 cases of conflict between Orang Rimba and companies and/or communities have been seen . Some of these have resulted in settlements being set on fire [4, 8]. The Orang Rimba's fight for their rights is part of the wider national movement of indigenous people seeking to have their rights recognised by the state, fronted by Aliansi Masyarakat Adat Nusantara (AMAN) . Furthermore, the Orang Rimba are supported by the organisation Warung Informasi Konservasi (WARSI) in terms of advocacy and provision of education and health services  .