Palm oil plantation in South-West Cameroon


A US-based agricultural company Herakles Farms, through its subsidiary SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon Ltd (SGSOC), is developing a 73 000 hectare palm oil plantation under a 99-year land lease, despite clear community opposition, 2 court injunctions and an absence of government authorization. Local communities and environmental organizations have warned that the project will cause massive deforestation in a biodiversity hotspot and loss of livelihoods of indigenous communities.

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Basic Data
NamePalm oil plantation in South-West Cameroon
ProvinceSouth West Cameroon
SiteNdian, Kup-Manengouba, and Manyu divisions
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture, Fisheries and Livestock Management)
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Land acquisition conflicts
Plantation conflicts (incl. Pulp
Intensive food production (monoculture and livestock)
Specific Commodities
Palm oil
Carbon offsets
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe project will take place over 73,100 ha of land, with 750 million dollars expected in revenue. The company is paying $0.50 to $1 per hectare per year and has a 99 year land lease. This plantation will have major impacts on up to 45,000 Indigenous Peoples in 88 villages who are dependent on the forest for their livelihoods. The plantation will also fragment and isolate the regions protected areas, including Korup National Park, Bakossi National Park, Banyang Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary, Nta Ali Forest Reserve, and Rumpi Hills Forest Reserve.

Project Area (in hectares)73086
Level of Investment (in USD)750 million dollars expected in revenue
Type of PopulationRural
Company Names or State EnterprisesSG Sustainable Oils Cameroon Ltd from Cameroon
Herakles Farms/Herakles Capital from United States of America
Blackstone Group
All for Africa - Us based NGO set up by entrepreneurs -
Relevant government actorsGovernment of Cameroon, Cameroonian Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife, Governor of the South-West region, Chief of Fabe and other villages
International and Financial InstitutionsAfrican Development Bank (AfDB)
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersStruggle to Economize Future Environment (SEFE), Oakland Institute,, Greenpeace,, Centre for Enviromment and Development (CED),, Reseach de Lutte Contre La Faim (RELUFA), Save Wildlife Foundation,
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
International ejos
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of MobilizationDevelopment of a network/collective action
Development of alternative proposals
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Official complaint letters and petitions
Street protest/marches
Arguments for the rights of mother nature
Appeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover
Potential: Desertification/Drought, Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Increase in violence and crime, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Specific impacts on women
Project StatusUnder construction
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCorruption
Court decision (failure for environmental justice)
Development of Alternatives-Oakland Institute calls for a moratorium on the allocation of new agro-industrial concessions that recognizes existing land rights and customary land rights.

-Support small-scale production of palm oil by smallholders with improved access to markets for production outputs.

-Ensure that palm tress are combined with other crops and trees for agricultural diversification

-Protect natural forests and avoid converting forested lands into plantations

-SEFE calls for a new agreement that takes into consideration the sustainable management of the forest
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.Herakles has been violating Cameroonian law since 2009, without receiving the presidential decree required for its project. It also ignored 2 court injunctions against its project. Evidence collected by Greenpeace reveals that large areas of forest land have already been clear cut by the company, despite ongoing community mobilization and opposition.

When an ESIA was carried out in 2012, it was found that the company had already destroyed 14.5 million trees of different species. The governments Rural Sector Development plan calls for palm oil production to triple to 45 000 tonnes annually by 2020.
Sources and Materials

Round Table for Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO)
[click to view]

Establishment Convention By and Between the Republic of Cameroon and SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon PLC. Section 9.5 (a, b, c).

Presidential decree

UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

African Charter of Human and Peoples Rights

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights


Greenpeace. Forest Clearing. Cameroon. Photo Essay:
[click to view]

The Oakland Institute. Understanding Land Investment Deals in Africa. Land Deal Brief, September 2012.
[click to view]

CED, 'HERAKLES 13TH LABOUR? A Study of SGSOCs Land Concession in South-West Cameroon':
[click to view]


[click to view]

[click to view]

IPS (Sept 2012):
[click to view]

Cultural Survival
[click to view]

[click to view]

Greenpeace International
[click to view]

Greenpeace International
[click to view]

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Media Links

The Oakland Institute and the Centre for Environment and Development. The Heracles Debacle. September 2012.
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorZahra Moloo
Last update08/04/2014