ENAYAM International Container Transshipment Terminal (PMAEICTT), India

Peoples' Movement Against Enayam ICTT has been mobilising with other EJOs against the Enayam port project in Tamil Nadu, India to avoid that around 50,000 fisher families in the region face displacement, loss of jobs and livelihood and marginalisation.


Government of India has come out with a gigantic and consolidated 'Sagarmala' national perspective plan to execute nearly 400 different projects along the coastline at a whopping cost of 8 lakh cores (lac crore rupees) in the next two decades. This includes constructing massive ports, augmenting coastal infrastructure, developing inland waterways, intensifying dee-sea fishing, and creating special economic zones and tourism promotion. 

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Basic Data
NameENAYAM International Container Transshipment Terminal (PMAEICTT), India
ProvinceKanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu
SiteBetween Helen Nagar and Melakurumbanai villages, Colachel and Enayam
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)
Thermal power plants
Aquaculture and fisheries
Ports and airport projects
Specific CommoditiesBiological resources
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe proposed major port is located in between Enayam and Colachel (Helen Nagar to Melakurumbanai village) at Kanyakumari District at a distance of 14NM from East-West International Shipping Route. The proposal envisages construction of breakwaters, dredging- reclamation, container berths with provision for addition of multi-purpose/dry bulk berths. The draft at the harbour is proposed at 16m capable of handling 18000 TEU capacity container vessels and cape size coal vessels. [2]

This port will act as the southern trans-shipment gateway. The estimated cost for this project is Rs 28000 crore. 500 acres of land will be reclaimed from the sea. [3]

A coal terminal with a capacity of 2000 MW thermal power plant is also part of the Enayam project, which is to be implemented in three phases between 2017-2030 (with a total capacity of 127.05 MTPA at the current cost estimate of Rs. 27,750 crores). [1]
Project Area (in hectares)108,000
Level of Investment (in USD)4,402,440,000
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population300,000
Start Date01/07/2016
Company Names or State EnterprisesKanyakumari Enayam Port Ltd. from India
Relevant government actorsCentral government of India; Ministry of Environment and Forests
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersPeople's Movement Against ENAYAM International Container Transshipment Terminal (PMAEICTT)

National Fishworkers' Forum of India



Coastal Action Network


Tamil Research Institute



Other supporting groups and EJOs coming together in Tamil Nadu Coastal Yatra for Bigger Protests in July 2017 (https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?id=1887343038180434&story_fbid=1889479531300118):

Aazhkadal Meenpidi Thozhilaalar Sangham

Vangakadal Meenpidi Thozhilaalar Sangham

Ramanathapuram Fishworkers Trade Union (RFTU)

National Alliance of People's Movement (NAPM)


People's Movement Against Nuclear Energy (PMANE)
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Social movements
Trade unions
Religious groups
Fisher people
Forms of MobilizationArtistic and creative actions (eg guerilla theatre, murals)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Development of alternative proposals
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Objections to the EIA
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Hunger strikes and self immolation
Human chains
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil erosion, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Other Environmental impacts
OtherSea erosion/accretion, negative impact on Western Ghats (one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites as a very important biodiversity hotspot), marine biodiversity and rich fishery resources, riverine ecosystem, coral reefs and turtle nesting sites as well as damage on sand dunes and increased risks of tsunami and storms
Health ImpactsPotential: Malnutrition
Socio-economic ImpactsPotential: Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Other socio-economic impacts
OtherPotential loss of jobs in small-scale fisheries, displacement and marginalisation of large number of traditional fisherfolk, farmers and their families
Project StatusPlanned (decision to go ahead eg EIA undertaken, etc)
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseUnder negotiation
Development of AlternativesImproving facilities in other major ports and removing the Enayam Port Project [4, 5]
Do you consider this as a success?Not Sure
Sources and Materials

Coastal Regulation Zone Notification (CRZ-2011)
[click to view]


[1] Jasiah Joseph and Devasahayam, PMAEICTT Paper presented to the 7th General Assembly of WFFP, November 2017


Hunger strike against the Enayam project (The Hindu News, August 2017)
[click to view]

[3] Webbage of Global Paravar (The Fisher Folks of the Paravar Community, 17 October 2016)
[click to view]

The Enayam Project Will Affect 20,000 Families (The New Indian Express, July 2017)
[click to view]

Fisherfolk and Farmers Against Port Near Kanniyakumari (The Hindu News, 13 January 2018)
[click to view]

[5] Scrap Enayam Project, Fishermen Urge Centre (The Hindu News, 22 November 2017)
[click to view]

Is the law protecting India's coasts being diluted? TN activists carry out protest yatra (The News, 27 July 2017)
[click to view]

Enayam Port Will Be Financial, Environmental and Social Disaster (The Times of India, July 2017)
[click to view]

[2] The Webpage of Kanyakumari Enayam Port Limited
[click to view]

[4] Modernise major ports, drop Enayam seaport idea (The Hindu News, 2 November 2017)
[click to view]

Media Links

Sea is for fishing communities - Coastal Yatra by NFF (July 2017)
[click to view]

Enayam Port Project (The Hindu BusinessLine, July 2016)
[click to view]

Other Documents

Protests Against Enayam Port Project Protests Against Enayam Port Project in the World Fisheries Day, New Delhi, 21 November 2017
[click to view]

Protests Against Enayam Port Project Protests Against Enayam Port Project in the World Fisheries Day, New Delhi, 21 November 2017
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorIrmak Ertor, ENVJUSTICE, ICTA, UAB
Last update31/01/2018