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ENAYAM International Container Transshipment Terminal (PMAEICTT), India

Peoples' Movement Against Enayam ICTT has been mobilising with other EJOs against the Enayam port project in Tamil Nadu, India to avoid that around 50,000 fisher families in the region face displacement, loss of jobs and livelihood and marginalisation.


Government of India has come out with a gigantic and consolidated 'Sagarmala' national perspective plan to execute nearly 400 different projects along the coastline at a whopping cost of 8 lakh cores (lac crore rupees) in the next two decades. This includes constructing massive ports, augmenting coastal infrastructure, developing inland waterways, intensifying dee-sea fishing, and creating special economic zones and tourism promotion. 

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:ENAYAM International Container Transshipment Terminal (PMAEICTT), India
State or province:Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu
Location of conflict:Between Helen Nagar and Melakurumbanai villages, Colachel and Enayam
Accuracy of locationMEDIUM (Regional level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Ports and airport projects
Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)
Thermal power plants
Aquaculture and fisheries
Specific commodities:Biological resources
Project Details and Actors
Project details

The proposed major port is located in between Enayam and Colachel (Helen Nagar to Melakurumbanai village) at Kanyakumari District at a distance of 14NM from East-West International Shipping Route. The proposal envisages construction of breakwaters, dredging- reclamation, container berths with provision for addition of multi-purpose/dry bulk berths. The draft at the harbour is proposed at 16m capable of handling 18000 TEU capacity container vessels and cape size coal vessels. [2]

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Project area:108,000
Level of Investment for the conflictive project4,402,440,000
Type of populationRural
Affected Population:300,000
Start of the conflict:01/07/2016
Company names or state enterprises:Kanyakumari Enayam Port Ltd. from India
Relevant government actors:Central government of India; Ministry of Environment and Forests
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:People's Movement Against ENAYAM International Container Transshipment Terminal (PMAEICTT)
National Fishworkers' Forum of India
Coastal Action Network
Tamil Research Institute
Other supporting groups and EJOs coming together in Tamil Nadu Coastal Yatra for Bigger Protests in July 2017 (
Aazhkadal Meenpidi Thozhilaalar Sangham
Vangakadal Meenpidi Thozhilaalar Sangham
Ramanathapuram Fishworkers Trade Union (RFTU)
National Alliance of People's Movement (NAPM)
People's Movement Against Nuclear Energy (PMANE)
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Social movements
Trade unions
Religious groups
Fisher people
Forms of mobilization:Artistic and creative actions (eg guerilla theatre, murals)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Development of alternative proposals
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Objections to the EIA
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Hunger strikes and self immolation
Human chains
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil erosion, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Other Environmental impacts
Other Environmental impactsSea erosion/accretion, negative impact on Western Ghats (one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites as a very important biodiversity hotspot), marine biodiversity and rich fishery resources, riverine ecosystem, coral reefs and turtle nesting sites as well as damage on sand dunes and increased risks of tsunami and storms
Health ImpactsPotential: Malnutrition
Socio-economical ImpactsPotential: Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Other socio-economic impacts
Other socio-economic impactsPotential loss of jobs in small-scale fisheries, displacement and marginalisation of large number of traditional fisherfolk, farmers and their families
Project StatusPlanned (decision to go ahead eg EIA undertaken, etc)
Conflict outcome / response:Under negotiation
Proposal and development of alternatives:Improving facilities in other major ports and removing the Enayam Port Project [4, 5]
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Not Sure
Sources & Materials
Juridical relevant texts related to the conflict (laws, legislations, EIAs, etc)

Coastal Regulation Zone Notification (CRZ-2011)
[click to view]

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

[1] Jasiah Joseph and Devasahayam, PMAEICTT Paper presented to the 7th General Assembly of WFFP, November 2017

[2] The Webpage of Kanyakumari Enayam Port Limited
[click to view]

[3] Webbage of Global Paravar (The Fisher Folks of the Paravar Community, 17 October 2016)
[click to view]

[4] Modernise major ports, drop Enayam seaport idea (The Hindu News, 2 November 2017)
[click to view]

[5] Scrap Enayam Project, Fishermen Urge Centre (The Hindu News, 22 November 2017)
[click to view]

Hunger strike against the Enayam project (The Hindu News, August 2017)
[click to view]

The Enayam Project Will Affect 20,000 Families (The New Indian Express, July 2017)
[click to view]

Enayam Port Will Be Financial, Environmental and Social Disaster (The Times of India, July 2017)
[click to view]

Is the law protecting India's coasts being diluted? TN activists carry out protest yatra (The News, 27 July 2017)
[click to view]

Fisherfolk and Farmers Against Port Near Kanniyakumari (The Hindu News, 13 January 2018)
[click to view]

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Sea is for fishing communities - Coastal Yatra by NFF (July 2017)
[click to view]

Enayam Port Project (The Hindu BusinessLine, July 2016)
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Irmak Ertor, ENVJUSTICE, ICTA, UAB
Last update18/08/2019
Conflict ID:3178
Legal notice / Aviso legal
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