Posco steel plant in Odisha, India

A ten years struggle defending the land against a steel plant project by South Korean POSCO company pays off. On 8th April 2016 the company announced the scrap of the project for its long environmental litigation in the NGT and for the people's opposition


Orissa (or Odisha) is an Indian State overlooking the Bay of Bengal, made up of rural and mountainous hinterland with few urban centers and home to around 7 million indigenous, often nomadic, Adivasi people divided into 62 different ethnic groups. Population density is high.

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Basic Data
NamePosco steel plant in Odisha, India
SiteJagathsinghpur distric (Dhinkia village, Paradip port)
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Industrial and Utilities conflicts
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Land acquisition conflicts
Mineral processing
Building materials extraction (quarries, sand, gravel)
Specific CommoditiesLand
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe plant envisages 12 million tons of steel upon reaching full capacity. The company would also construct a new port at Jatadhari.
Project Area (in hectares)1600
Level of Investment (in USD)12 000 000 000
Type of PopulationSemi-urban
Start Date2004
Company Names or State EnterprisesPohang Iron and Steel Company (POSCO) from Republic of Korea
Relevant government actorsOrissa Government, Green National Tribunal
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersCitizens for Environmental Protection., PPSS (Pratirodha Sangram Samiti), led by Abhay Sahu, Indian Supreme Court, One Communist Party of India., Activists from all over India.
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Social movements
Forms of MobilizationBlockades
Boycotts of official procedures/non-participation in official processes
Development of alternative proposals
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Occupation of buildings/public spaces
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover
Potential: Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality
Health ImpactsPotential: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Malnutrition, Deaths
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Displacement, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights
Project StatusProposed (exploration phase)
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseProject cancelled
Withdrawal of company/investment
Development of AlternativesThe mobilizers do not want the construction of the steel plant, and want to cultivate the land instead.
Do you consider this as a success?Yes
Why? Explain briefly.The 12 milion tons steel plant is not built yet, but there are advanced plans for its construction, perhas at on 8 M tons in the first phase. In 2011, the project was halted by the so-called Green Tribunal of the Supreme Court but the government of the state of Odisha (Orissa) is buying land and making it available to Posco. Still the population keeps on cultivating the so-called government land.

Meanwhile, another steel plant belonging to Posco has been built near Bombay.

UPDATE 8th April 2016: Posco announced the scrap of the project. Despite impacts are already created (like illegal logging of trees), the company decided to withdraw due to difficulty in obtaining subsequent env clearances and for people's opposition.
Sources and Materials

Forest Rights Act (enacted 2008), it has been used against the initial MoU (memorandum of understanding) between Government of Orissa and POSCO

1894 Land Acquisition Act and its revised version from 2013

Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act


Globalisation in the fifth schedule areas-alienation of land and resources from people. Hyderabad, Samanta. 2001.

Globalisation, Imdias Adjustament Experience. Dasgupta, Biplab. Ed. SAGE PUBLICATIONS. 2005.


Green bench rejects Posco’s Orissa project, J., P., Koshy & R., Singh, 31/03/2012
[click to view]

India Together - "A battle that hasn’t been won in nine years" by Kanchi Kholi
[click to view]

Anti-Posco activists observe Black Day, 09/07/2015
[click to view]

‘Whatever they do, project dead, we keep our land’, D., Mohanty, 09/03/2015
[click to view]

Prameya News, 8th April 2016 - There will be no Posco project in Odisha!
[click to view]

Business Standard, 9th April 2016 - Project in Odisha is over, says Posco
[click to view]

Media Links

Action 2007- NO POSCO Part 2 A - Film on people's resistance against POSCO in Orissa (A Film By Girish&Rajkumar)
[click to view]

Action 2007- NO POSCO Part 1 - A Film on people's resistance against POSCO in Orissa (A Film By Girish&Rajkumar)
[click to view]

Other Documents

Villagers occupying Odisha site, February 2013 madhyamam.com
[click to view]

Other CommentsLocal opposition leaders have been arrested, for instance Narayan Reddy (a former legislator). The opposition spreads over an area of eight villages.
Meta Information
ContributorLucie Greyl
Last update09/04/2016