Pata Rat landfill, Cluj Napoca, Romania

Environmental racism at work: the making of precarious living and working conditions on the Pata Rat landfill. This is the largest waste-related ghetto in Europe located in Cluj Napoca, Romania.


Description

The conflict emerged most visibly with the eviction of tens of Roma families (350 people) from a street in a residential area of Cluj Napoca (str. Coastei) and their relocation to an area in close proximity to the Pata Rat municipal waste dump (800 m) and even closer proximity to the chemical (pharmaceutical) waste dump (200 m). The relocation occurred in mid-December 2010 and triggered protests from civic and pro-Roma organizations based in Cluj Napoca.

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Basic Data
NamePata Rat landfill, Cluj Napoca, Romania
CountryRomania
SiteCluj Napoca
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Waste Management
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Landfills, toxic waste treatment, uncontrolled dump sites
Specific CommoditiesLand
Industrial waste
Recycled Metals
Domestic municipal waste
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe Cluj Napoca municipality forcibly relocated 350 people, most identified as Roma, in December 2010 from a street in a residential area of Cluj Napoca to the city’s municipal waste dump and a nearby chemical waste dump. However, this environmental justice case involves much more than this forced relocation “project”, as the inhabitants have been subject to long-term discrimination.

The project "Integrated waste management system in Cluj County" has a total eligible budget of EUR 52 899 193, with the EU's European Regional Development Fund contributing EUR 38 773 186 for the 2007 to 2013 programming period.

http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/projects/romania/a-modern-hygienic-solid-waste-system-for-cluj
Project Area (in hectares)30
Level of Investment (in USD)52,899,000 Euros
Type of PopulationSemi-urban
Potential Affected Population1,500
Start Date17/12/2010
Company Names or State EnterprisesNational Public Management company from Romania - Management and construction of Pata Rat waste dump
SC Confort SA from Romania - Construction of the new waste dump
Atzwanger SPA from Romania - Construction of the new waste dump
Salprest SA from Romania - Waste management
SC Ladurner Impianti SRL from Romania - Construction of the new waste dump
SC Vel Service SA from Romania - Construction of the new waste dump
Relevant government actorsCluj Napoca municipality, Cluj Local Council, Cluj Prefecture.
International and Financial InstitutionsEuropean Commission from Romania - Funding of the Integrated Waste Management Facility (no involvement in segregation/discrimination)
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersWorking Group of Civil Society Organizations (gLOC) www.gloc.ro (unavailable in June 2017)

Desire Foundation (http://www.desire-ro.eu/)

Pro Roma (http://www.prorroma.org/ro/despre_prorroma/ - Romamian and http://www.proromi.nl/nl/dit_is_proromi/ - Dutch)

International IEJOs: http://www.smallstepsproject.org/dump-projects/romania-cluj/#
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingInformal workers
International ejos
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Wastepickers, recyclers
Ethnically/racially discriminated groups
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of MobilizationArtistic and creative actions (eg guerilla theatre, murals)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of alternative proposals
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Fires, Soil contamination, Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Other Environmental impacts
OtherInsecure housing
Health ImpactsVisible: Accidents, Occupational disease and accidents
Potential: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Malnutrition, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Deaths
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Land dispossession
Potential: Increase in violence and crime, Loss of livelihood, Violations of human rights, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Outcome
Project StatusUnder construction
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseLand demarcation
Court decision (failure for environmental justice)
Repression
Development of AlternativesDevelopment of alternative housing: https://citizenspact.eu/blog/288/
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.There are no apparent plans or intentions to relocate the Roma from Pata Rat to offer them acceptable living and working conditions.
Sources and Materials
References

Spatialization and Racialization of Social Exclusion
[click to view]

Book published in 2016: "Pata" (in Romanian)
[click to view]

Spatialization and Racialization of Social Exclusion. The Social and Cultural Formation of ‘Gypsy Ghettos’ in Romania in a European Context

Guest editor: Enikő Vincze

Studia Sociologia - see no. 2/2013 for download link.
[click to view]

Links

Pata-Cluj, a social intervention project using an integrated approach to social inclusion.
[click to view]

Media Links

Social justice in Pata Cluj
[click to view]

Trailer documentary Pata-Cluj (2017)
[click to view]

Other Documents

Pata Rat picture #2 Pictures taken in April 2017 by George Popescu (to whom credit is due)
[click to view]

Pata Rat picture #4 Pictures taken in April 2017 by George Popescu (to whom credit is due)
[click to view]

Pata Rat picture #5 Pictures taken in April 2017 by George Popescu (to whom credit is due)
[click to view]

Pata Rat picture #3 Pictures taken in April 2017 by George Popescu (to whom credit is due)
[click to view]

Pata Rat picture #1 Pictures taken in April 2017 by George Popescu (to whom credit is due)
[click to view]

Pata Rat picture #6 Pictures taken in April 2017 by George Popescu (to whom credit is due)
[click to view]

Pata Rat picture #7 Pictures taken in April 2017 by George Popescu (to whom credit is due)
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorFilip Alexandrescu (Ca' Foscari University of Venice, Italy and Research Institute for the Quality of Life, Romania), [email protected], with contributons from Ionut Anghel, Cristina Rat and Simona Stanescu.
Last update13/10/2017
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