Last update:
2020-05-21

Waste collection dispute in Bamako, Mali

In 2015, Bamako abandoned its decentralized, socially-inclusive waste collection model and subordinated neighborhood-based sanitation groups to the private waste operator Ozone. Since then problems have further aggravated and citizens continue to protest.


Description:

Waste collection in Bamako has long been the responsibility of small neighborhood-based associations and business groups, so-called Groupements d’Intérêts Economiques (GIE), which are coordinated by an association called ‘Collectif des Groupements Intervenant dans l'Assourissement au Mali (COGIAM)’. [1][2] Since the early 1990s, these were integral parts of Bamako’s waste management system and in charge of door-to-door collection and transport to waste transfer depots. About groups usually consist of five to 30 members and work for a fee that was directly paid by households. The groups typically use carts drawn by donkeys and the direct payment system incentivizes them to provide good services. They have been a crucial source of employment, particularly for young adults. Waste workers are also allowed to pick out recyclable waste to complement their salaries. The collected recyclable waste is sold to junk dealers. [3]

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Waste collection dispute in Bamako, Mali
Country:Mali
Location of conflict:Bamako
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Waste Management
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Landfills, toxic waste treatment, uncontrolled dump sites
Pollution related to transport (spills, dust, emissions)
Urban development conflicts
Water treatment and access to sanitation (access to sewage)
Waste privatisation conflicts / waste-picker access to waste
Specific commodities:Domestic municipal waste
Recycled Metals
Project Details and Actors
Project details

Since 2015, the waste collection has been controlled by the Moroccan-controlled waste company Ozone-Mali, which employs about 1,300 people [15]. However, Ozone recently only collected around 30 percent of Bamako's waste (which is estimated to generate about 1,500 tons daily) so that neighborhoods again engaged local Groupements d’Intérêt Economique, which have traditionally collected the city’s waste and, as of 2019, were responsible for 45 percent of the sanitation services. [8][27]

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Level of Investment:10,000,000.00
Type of populationUrban
Start of the conflict:2001
Company names or state enterprises:Ozone-Mali from Morocco - Holds waste management contract with Bamako district
Relevant government actors:Mairie du District de Bamako
Maries des Communes I, II, III, IV, V, VI
Ministere de l'Environnement et de l'Assainissement (MEA)
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Collectif des Groupements Intervenant dans l'Assourissement au Mali (COGIAM)
Coopérative des Récupérateurs de la Commune IV
Global Alliance of Waste Pickers (Globalrec)
Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO)
Coordination des jeunes de Doumanzana
Collectif des riverains de la décharge de Doumanzana
Students of Doulaye Baba school, Doumanzana
Students of Mamadou Diarra 2 school, Médina Coura
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityMEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
Groups mobilizing:Informal workers
International ejos
Local ejos
Trade unions
Wastepickers, recyclers
Women
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of mobilization:Blockades
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Development of alternative proposals
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Property damage/arson
Strikes
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Fires, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Potential: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Soil erosion
Health ImpactsVisible: Accidents, Occupational disease and accidents, Infectious diseases, Other environmental related diseases
Potential: Malnutrition, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution, Deaths
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment
Potential: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Increase in violence and crime, Loss of livelihood, Militarization and increased police presence, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Environmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area
Institutional changes
Repression
Strengthening of participation
Technical solutions to improve resource supply/quality/distribution
Under negotiation
Application of existing regulations
Development of alternatives:COGIAM wants to increase its competences in the waste management sector and advocated a socially-inclusive model that improves collection and recycling, but also the conditions for waste workers. Their proposed model comes close to cooperative-based recycling schemes, as for example advocated by the Global Alliance of Waste Pickers (Globalrec) and the organization WIEGO (Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing) and already practiced in numerous cities around the globe – from Pune in India to Belo Horizonte in Brazil.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:The organizing of neighborhood-based sanitation groups assumingly prevented their complete displacement from the waste management sector, but the conflict over competencies between Ozone, public authorities and COGIAM is ongoing and unlikely to take a turn towards any social or environmental improvements. Waste problems across Bamako are unsolved and have severely affected the health of tens of thousands of residents.
Sources & Materials
Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

[1] Bardy, G. (2013): Les Récupérateurs de Doumanzana – Bamako, Mali. 03.04.2013.
[click to view]

[3] Globalrec (n.d.): Bamako – Mali. City Report: Interview with a local Waste Picker.
[click to view]

[5] Ba, S. (2019): Quatre ans après la signature du contrat Ozone Mali : Aucune partie n’est satisfaite. Bamada, 05.03.2019.
[click to view]

[6] N’Guessan, P. (2019): Assainissement : l’échec bamakois! Bamako News, 11.10.2019.
[click to view]

[7] Keita, D. (2018): Assainissement de la ville de Bamako: Un collectif de 180 GIE demande de resilier le contrat d’Ozone. Nouvel Horizon Mali, 14.03.2018.
[click to view]

[8] Bah, S. (2018): Sans Tabou: décharge de Noumoubougou, où en sommes-nous ? Bamada, 26.10.2018.
[click to view]

[9] Dicko, G. (2011): Doumanzana: La Décharge de la Controverse. Malijet, 15.04.2011.
[click to view]

[10] Helsens, T. (2009): Vivre au milieu des ordures. Libération, 31.03.2009.
[click to view]

[11] Coulibaly, B. (2013): S.O.S pour l’école Doulaye Baba de Doumanzan. abamako.com, 17.04.2013.
[click to view]

[12] Bamada.net (2013): Programme d’urgence d’assainissement de Bamako : L’Expectative. 27.11.2013.
[click to view]

[13] Touré, C., Koné, A. (2019): Assainissement: Bamako impuissante face à la sempiternelle question de gestion des ordures. Notre Nation, 19.07.2019.
[click to view]

[14] Sylla, M. (2019): Insalubrité : Bamako, la cité des ordures! Maliweb, 24.09.2019.
[click to view]

[15] Konaté, D. (2018): Vidéo. Mali: Bamako est sale, à qui la faute? Le Afrique 360, 12.08.2012.
[click to view]

[16] Sow, A. (2016): Mali: Marché Dabanani : des ordures inondent la voie publique. Maliactu, 10.08.2016.
[click to view]

[17] Konaté, S. (2019): Mali : Dépôts de transit de Médina-Coura et de Lafiabougou : Les évacuations arrêtées depuis des mois, les déchets refont surface. Maliactu, 05.03.2019.
[click to view]

[18] Ndiaye, I. (2019): Blocage de route a Lafiabougou: Pas de dialogue sans l’évacuation des eaux et déchets. 30 minutes, 20.09.2019.
[click to view]

[19] Bla, E. (2016): Gestion des ordures ménagères par la société Ozone: la mort sur prescription à Lafiabougou. RP Medias, 08.06.2016.
[click to view]

[20] France24 (2018): Au cœur de Bamako, la décharge qui pourrit le quotidien des habitants. 29.11.2018.
[click to view]

[21] Simpara, A. (2018): Mali : Les élèves de Medina Coura manifestent contre le dépôt d’ordures. Maliactu, 21.11.2018.
[click to view]

[22] Sangaré, S. (2018): L’école Place de la République à Bamako, entre tas d’ordures et étals de commerce. Benbere, 18.12.2018.
[click to view]

[23] Zeita, Y. (2019): Entre ozone Mali et les GIE : C’est la guerre! abamako.com, 13.03.2019.
[click to view]

[24] Doumbia, K. (2020): Ozone-Mali : La révolution en marche. Maliweb, 05.02.2020.
[click to view]

[25] Bah, S. (2020): Mali : Assainissement de Bamako: la douteuse opération de charme d’Ozone-Mali. Maliactu, 28.02.2020.
[click to view]

[26] Sallah, L. (2020): Récupérateurs de déchets : face au Covid-19, «seul Dieu peut nous sauver ». Benbere, 09.05.2020.
[click to view]

[27] Keita, Y. (2019): Groupements d’intérêt économique : Quelle place dans l’assainissement de Bamako? Bamada, 13.02.2019.
[click to view]

[2] Schiltz, C. (2008): La décharge de Doumanzana à Bamako. 14.04.2008.
[click to view]

[3] Globalrec (n.d.): Bamako – Mali. City Report: Interview with a local Waste Picker. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[4] Toure, A. (2015): Exclu du Projet d'assainissement Ozone-Mali : Le Cogiam préconise l’implication des plus hautes autorités du pays. Malijet, 18.02.2015. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[5] Ba, S. (2019): Quatre ans après la signature du contrat Ozone Mali : Aucune partie n’est satisfaite. Bamada, 05.03.2019. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[6] N’Guessan, P. (2019): Assainissement : l’échec bamakois! Bamako News, 11.10.2019. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[7] Keita, D. (2018): Assainissement de la ville de Bamako: Un collectif de 180 GIE demande de resilier le contrat d’Ozone. Nouvel Horizon Mali, 14.03.2018. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[8] Bah, S. (2018): Sans Tabou: décharge de Noumoubougou, où en sommes-nous ? Bamada, 26.10.2018. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[9] Dicko, G. (2011): Doumanzana: La Décharge de la Controverse. Malijet, 15.04.2011. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[10] Helsens, T. (2009): Vivre au milieu des ordures. Libération, 31.03.2009. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[11] Coulibaly, B. (2013): S.O.S pour l’école Doulaye Baba de Doumanzan. abamako.com, 17.04.2013. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[12] Bamada.net (2013): Programme d’urgence d’assainissement de Bamako : L’Expectative. 27.11.2013. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[13] Touré, C., Koné, A. (2019): Assainissement: Bamako impuissante face à la sempiternelle question de gestion des ordures. Notre Nation, 19.07.2019. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[14] Sylla, M. (2019): Insalubrité : Bamako, la cité des ordures! Maliweb, 24.09.2019. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[15] Konaté, D. (2018): Vidéo. Mali: Bamako est sale, à qui la faute? Le Afrique 360, 12.08.2012. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[16] Sow, A. (2016): Mali: Marché Dabanani : des ordures inondent la voie publique. Maliactu, 10.08.2016. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[18] Ndiaye, I. (2019): Blocage de route a Lafiabougou: Pas de dialogue sans l’évacuation des eaux et déchets. 30 minutes, 20.09.2019. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[19] Bla, E. (2016): Gestion des ordures ménagères par la société Ozone: la mort sur prescription à Lafiabougou. RP Medias, 08.06.2016. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[20] France24 (2018): Au cœur de Bamako, la décharge qui pourrit le quotidien des habitants. 29.11.2018. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[21] Simpara, A. (2018): Mali : Les élèves de Medina Coura manifestent contre le dépôt d’ordures. Maliactu, 21.11.2018. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[22] Sangaré, S. (2018): L’école Place de la République à Bamako, entre tas d’ordures et étals de commerce. Benbere, 18.12.2018. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[23] Zeita, Y. (2019): Entre ozone Mali et les GIE : C’est la guerre! abamako.com, 13.03.2019. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[24] Doumbia, K. (2020): Ozone-Mali : La révolution en marche. Maliweb, 05.02.2020. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[25] Bah, S. (2020): Mali : Assainissement de Bamako: la douteuse opération de charme d’Ozone-Mali. Maliactu, 28.02.2020. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[26] Sallah, L. (2020): Récupérateurs de déchets : face au Covid-19, «seul Dieu peut nous sauver ». Benbere, 09.05.2020. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[2] Schiltz, C. (2008): La décharge de Doumanzana à Bamako. 14.04.2008. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[27] Keita, Y. (2019): Groupements d’intérêt économique : Quelle place dans l’assainissement de Bamako? Bamada, 13.02.2019. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[17] Konaté, S. (2019): Mali : Dépôts de transit de Médina-Coura et de Lafiabougou : Les évacuations arrêtées depuis des mois, les déchets refont surface. Maliactu, 05.03.2019. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[1] Bardy, G. (2013): Les Récupérateurs de Doumanzana – Bamako, Mali. 03.04.2013. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
[click to view]

[4] Toure, A. (2015): Exclu du Projet d'assainissement Ozone-Mali : Le Cogiam préconise l’implication des plus hautes autorités du pays. Malijet, 18.02.2015.
[click to view]

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Globalrec (2012): Mali recuperateurs
[click to view]

Globalrec (2012): Mali recuperaterus
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:EnvJustice Project (MS)
Last update21/05/2020
Comments
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