Land clearing for oil palm plantation started in 2004 by PT Surya Sawit Sejat -PT SSS- iafter the conduction of a preliminary survey. PT SSS did not hold any meetings, disseminated information nor consulted the communities. The company staff only exchanged information with the village chiefs. The first community plantations were set up in 2005 and 2006. PT SSS was acquired by United Plantation Berhad -a founding member of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil- in 2006 and became a palm oil plantation, despite not having carried any legal process previously . There are 2 villages within the PT SSS areas: Sungai Rangit Jaya and Runtu . The local communities earn their livelihoods from cultivating rubber and palm oil, working for large companies. Traditionally, they cooperated to grow rice, food crops and rubber, fish in rivers and lakes and collect stones to sell them for construction. With the arrival of palm oil, their livelihoods were radically changed and fostered individualization as people were hired to work for the plantation. Customary institutions had disappeared on the 80s after the introduction of the village governmental system, which regulates land ownership and use based on State laws. In 2008, a regulation on Dayak customary Institutions was issued to empower the rights of indigenous peoples and support customary laws. United Plantation was one of the stakeholders that established the RSPO. Attempts at hindering the establishment of the plantation took place by the locals in several occasions, which usually ended up with arrest by the police.