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Locals against the privatization of the Pari island (Pulau Pari), Indonesia

Residents controlled Pulau Pari's land for generations, in 2010 initiating community tourism. In 2015, PT Bumi Pari Asri claimed 90% of the island. Since then residents experienced intimidation and criminalization.


Pari Island is located in the Seribu Islands (The Thousand Islands) Regency, South Thousand Islands District, Pari Village, located two hours by boat from the sea port of Muara Angke in Jakarta. Pari Island has an area of ​​approximately 42.3 hectares which are currently inhabited by 300 families with a total of 1100 residents. Pari Island, becam a tourist attractions in the Thousand Islands since 2010 and tourism became an integral part of of people's lives [1]. Management of tourism in Pari Island is in the hands of the community directly, with the arrangement carried out by the Coastal Tourism Forum in Pari Island as the official body that regulates Pari Island tourism. With good  management, income from tourism can support other social services that run for the benefit of the community, because 5% of income from tourism managers from lodging rentals, snorkeling equipment rentals, boat rentals, and catering services will be deducted from the village treasury and used to support operational madrasa, mosque, infaq, funeral and other social activities.  Pari Island residents have taken control of the land for generations to date. In the 1960s Pari Island residents registered land through girik, a customary title used for indigenous-owned lands [5] . However Girik (also known as Letter C) is not recognized as a document of ownership of land, as evidence of land title ownership (the tax authority stopped using girik in 1994). Currently this document can prove that the holder of the document is the person who controlled or use the land.  From 1982 to 1985, the Tidung island village drew authentic gyros and land documents belonging to residents who had been registered, citing renewal, but until now there has been no renewal of land rights and no backing.  Residents of Pari say that local officials romised a few years ago that they would receive land certificates after submitting the old papers that were informal records of the land they occupied.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Locals against the privatization of the Pari island (Pulau Pari), Indonesia
State or province:Jakarta
Location of conflict:Pulau Pari
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Tourism Recreation
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Land acquisition conflicts
Specific commodities:Land
Tourism services
Project Details and Actors
Project details

Bumi Pari Asri representatives first set foot on the island in 1989. In the four years after, the company managed to buy 110 pieces of land from one legal heir who’s a second-generation Pari resident.

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Project area:42.3 hectares
Level of Investment for the conflictive project55,580 USD
Type of populationRural
Affected Population:300 families with a total of 1100 residents
Start of the conflict:01/01/2015
Company names or state enterprises:Bumi Raya Utama Group from Indonesia - PT Bumi Pari Asri is a subsidiary of this company
PT Bumi Pari Asri from Indonesia - This company is the one claiming ownership over the residents of the island
Relevant government actors:Ministry of Agrarian Affairs and Spatial Planning/
North Jakarta National Land Agency (BPN)
The Indonesian Ombudsman
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Save the Pari Island Coalition (KSPP): Walhi, LBH Jakarta, Kiara, PBHI, SP, SPI and the Participatory Mapping Network, Indonesian Traditional Fishermen Association (KNTI)
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:International ejos
Local ejos
Fisher people
Forms of mobilization:Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Other Environmental impacts
Socio-economical ImpactsPotential: Loss of livelihood, Displacement, Land dispossession
Project StatusProposed (exploration phase)
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Criminalization of activists
Court decision (victory for environmental justice)
Violent targeting of activists
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Not Sure
Briefly explain:The case has partially been succesfully by the intervention of the Ombudsman but now the National Land Agency (BPN) has to revise the process and revoke the land certificates, re-establishing the legitimate rights of the community
Sources & Materials
Juridical relevant texts related to the conflict (laws, legislations, EIAs, etc)

Article 14 of Government Regulation No. 24/1997 on land registration

Law Number 27/2007 concerning Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands

Law No. 5/1960 concerning Basic Agrarian Principles Regulations

[1] Mongabay Travel: Pulau Pari, Gairah Wisata Baru di Kepulauan Seribu. May 28, 2013. Mongabay (accessed on 12.06.2019)
[click to view]

[2] Pulau Pari Conflict Gets Tense. March 11, 2017. Gres News (accessed on 12.06.2019)
[click to view]

[3] Perbedaan Cara Pandang Kriminalisasi Nelayan Pulau Pari, Seperti Apa? September 19, 2017. Mongabay (accessed on 12.06.2019)
[click to view]

[4] Dinilai Tak Bersalah, Tiga Nelayan Pulau Pari Diminta Segera Dibebaskan dari Hukuman. October 5, 2017. Mongabay (accessed on 12.06.2019)
[click to view]

[5] Kekerasan di Pulau Pari Dibawa ke Komisi Nasional Hak Asasi Manusia. November 22, 2017. Mongabay (accessed on 12.06.2019)
[click to view]

[6] Kabar dari Pulau Pari: Menanti Aksi Pemerintah Jakarta Tindaklanjuti Temuan Ombudsman. May 15, 2018. Mongabay (accessed on 12.06.2019)
[click to view]

[7] Siapa Pemilik Pulau Pari Sebenarnya? May 23, 2017. Mongabay (accessed on 12.06.2019)
[click to view]

[7] Pari Island Residents Fight Developer With Snorkels and Homestays. October 9, 2018. Jakarta Globe (accessed on 12.06.2019)
[click to view]

[8] Save Pulau Pari! November 5, 2018. Land Coalition. (accessed on 12.06.2019)
[click to view]

[9] The Paradise Off the Coast of Jakarta Fighting Against Privatization. February 12, 2018. Vice (accessed on 12.06.2019)
[click to view]

Meta information
Last update18/08/2019
Conflict ID:4260
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