Although effective exploitation of groundwater resources represents the most cost-effective and sustainable solution to Lebanon’s water problems , the Lebanese government has gone on a recent “dam obsession,”  ignoring the associated environmental risks, cheaper alternatives, and core issue behind water shortages, namely severe mismanagement of an otherwise abundant resource.  The Qaysamani dam in Falougha is yet another dam under construction in Lebanon, located on the Mghiteh plateau, which was proposed in the ten-year national water strategy of the Ministry of Energy and Water in 2010. The residents of Hammana, a Christian village, have been fiercely opposing the project since its inception, claiming that it threatens their central water source, the Chaghour spring, besides being harmful to the environment and failing to meet its stated objective of providing the specified volume of water (including good quality potable water), with its current design and specified location. The country’s complicated sectarian dynamic, however, has infiltrated this issue as well, with other surrounding villages with largely Druze constituencies supporting the project, suspecting that citizens of Hammana want to rob them of the promised water resource. Meanwhile, citizens of Hammana claim that the political leaders backing the project have ties to the contracted company and will benefit financially from the Kuwaiti loan, although there is no evidence to back this claim. Scientific facts, however, highlight the irrational nature of the project. The location is a highly seismic area, one of the most active in Lebanon, and a study by professors at the American University of Beirut shows that if the wall collapses Hammana will be flooded within two hours . Ironically, campaign members state that the response of former minister of energy Gebran Basil to this concern was that only one house in Hammana will be flooded at worst, not being able to refute the claim that the dam might collapse. Moreover, the porous geology of the land and its Karstic nature make it unsuitable for a dam, which will lead to a high amount of leakage. According to Marie-Helene Nassif, a local of Hammana and a water expert, taking into account the costs and benefits of the project, particularly the huge loan that will have to repaid, the project becomes unreasonable. Dr. Naji Kodeih also argues that the EIA conducted did not explore alternative proposals, such as collecting water downstream from the Chaghour river, which would result in more water storage than building the dam. He claims that it seems the broader goal is not to make rational use of the country’s water resources, but rather building the dam seems to be an end in itself.  As for the EIA, it was conducted for a project at a different location, in Qaysamani (hence the current name of the dam) but no EIA was conducted when the location was changed. Meanwhile, government officials kept blaming Hammana residents for slowing down this project with their actions and complaints.