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Ranthambore Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India

Since its inception in 1973, the creation of a tiger reserve led to forced eviction and relocation of pastoralist Van Gujjars and other traditional communities, without proper resettlement land and services


Ranthambore is a National park situated in the district of Sawai Madhopur, Rajhastan. The national park was notified as a tiger project in 1973, and since then the process of relocation of its inhabitants started. Between 1973/79 there were 16 villages residing within the boundaries of the core area, and 11/12 of them, with a total population of 681 and total livestock of 3,879, were relocated from the reserve. Eight villages were moved to an area called Kailashpuri while three, Lahapur, Nagadi and Ranthambore, were relocated to Gopalpura. According to the forest officials, the people were happy to move out from the forest space, but according to several testimonies, the people were instead forcefully removed from the area [1]. In the relocated space the land is found to be infertile, there is no water for irrigation, no schools and no health facilities nearby [1].

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Ranthambore Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India
State or province:Rajasthan
Location of conflict:Sawai Madhopur
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Biodiversity conservation conflicts
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Establishment of reserves/national parks
Specific commodities:Land
Biological resources
Tourism services
Project Details and Actors
Project details

Situated in the Sawai Madhopur district, Ranthambore represents one of the most renewable National Parks in Northern India. It was notified as a Tiger Reserve in 1973. From 1973 to 1979 a number of 12 villages, equal to 681 families, have been displaced under the pressure of the Forest Department.

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Project area:141,129
Type of populationRural
Affected Population:8,000 families
Start of the conflict:01/05/2007
Relevant government actors:National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)
Rajasthani Forest Department
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Gramin Shiksha Kendra (
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityMEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Local ejos
Landless peasants
Traditional, indigenous and nomadic communities comprise Meena, Gujjars, Mogiyas, Jat, Muslims and Bairwas
Forms of mobilization:Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Official complaint letters and petitions
Street protest/marches
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Food insecurity (crop damage)
Potential: Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover
Health ImpactsPotential: Malnutrition
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Other socio-economic impacts
Potential: Increase in violence and crime, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Specific impacts on women
Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Land demarcation
Strengthening of participation
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:The people of the new Girirajpura village have struggled to successfully receive the relocation package rather than just monetary compensation. However, the relocation has not been carried on as per promise and basic amenities, as well as land titles, have yet not been distributed. Forcefully relocation is continuing to happen without the consent of the people.
Sources & Materials
Juridical relevant texts related to the conflict (laws, legislations, EIAs, etc)

The Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers (recognition of forest rights) Act, 2006
[click to view]

Section 38V of the Wildlife Protectio Act (WLPA), Amendment 2006
[click to view]

[1] Down To Earth. "Relocation Farce", June 28, 2015.
[click to view]

[2] The Times of India. "Funds delay hampering village relocation for tiger corridor", Jun. 24, 2015.
[click to view]

[3]The Times of India. "Relocating villages: Ranthambore struggles to find space for Tigers", Sept. 25, 2016.
[click to view]

Hardnews. "Learning from Ranthambore", Nov. 22, 2013.
[click to view]

The times of India. "Finally villages at Ranthambore to be relocated", July 12, 2008.
[click to view]

Other comments:We are thankful for the information shared by Shubham Garg, Executive Director of Gramin Shiksha Kendra, an organization working with the rehabilitated communities of Ranthambhore.
Meta information
Contributor:Eleonora Fanari, [email protected], ICTA
Last update28/02/2019
Conflict ID:4012
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