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Ratnagiri Oil Refinery in Nanar, Maharashtra, India

Constant protests by local residents - farmers, fishermen and neighbours in Ratnagiri, led to the successful cancelling of the proposed oil refinery, planned to be the world's largest.


Stare-run oil companies - Indian Oil Corporation, Bharat Petroleum and Hindustan Petroleum created Ratnagiri Refinery & Petrochemicals Ltd (RRPCL) (14) to set up what would be the country's biggest oil refinery, at Nanar, a village in Ratnagiri district, 400 kms (250 miles) south of Mumbai (2). The project was declared in May 2017 and land acquisitions began illegally under the Maharashtra Industrial Development Act of 1961, when 16,000 acres of the region was declared an 'industrial zone' (12). In November 2017,  two thousand farmers from affected villages marched to Mumbai’s Azad Maidan to protest this project (11). In Nanar, thousands of farmers got on roads for days, opposing government’s attempts to carry out a joint measurement survey by using sheets of cloth and black umbrellas (2).

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Ratnagiri Oil Refinery in Nanar, Maharashtra, India
State or province:Maharashtra
Location of conflict:Ratnagiri
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Oil and gas refining
Land acquisition conflicts
Specific commodities:Crude oil
Project Details and Actors
Project details

The Ratnagiri Refinery & Petrochemicals Ltd (RRPCL) is a joint venture between Indian Oil Corp (IOC) (25% stake in project), Hindustan Petroleum (12.5%) and Bharat Petroleum (12.5%). While the three Indian PSU's hold 50% stake in the project, the world’s biggest oil producer, Saudi Arabian Oil Co., or Saudi Aramco (25%) and Abu Dhabi National Oil Co. (Adnoc) (25%), the state-run oil firm of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), jointly own the other half. The capacity of the refinery is 1.2 million barrel-per-day (bpd) and it will be an integrated petrochemical site with a capacity of 18 million tonnes per year.

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Project area:6070.285
Level of Investment for the conflictive project44,000,000,000.00
Type of populationRural
Affected Population:3400-4250
Start of the conflict:12/08/2017
End of the conflict:2019
Company names or state enterprises:Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL) from India
Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd (HPCL) from India
Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) from India
Saudi Arabian Oil Company (Saudi Aramco) from Saudi Arabia - Earns 25% stake in the project
Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) from United Arab Emirates - Earns 25% stake in the project
Maharashtra Government from India
Ratnagiri Refinery & Petrochemicals Ltd (RRPCL) from India - Owns 50% of the project
National Democratic Alliance (NDA) from India - Supports the project
Relevant government actors:Dharmendra Pradhan, Petroleum minister
Expert committee set up for settlement of land acquisition issues:
DM Sukhtankar, former chief secretary of Maharashtra and former urban development secretary with the central government
Dr Vijay Kelkar, chairman of National Institute of Public Finance and Policy and former secretary in the ministries of finance and petroleum
Abhay Pethe, academician and economist
JB Joshi, former-director of Mumbai-based Institute of Chemical Technology
S.B. Kadrekar, former vice-chancellor of Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth.
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Konkan Vinashkari Prakalp Virodhi Samiti (KVPVS) (translation - Committee for Opposing Destructive Projects in Konkan)
The Oppostion Congress, NCP and Maharashtra Navnirman Sena, and the ruling ally Shiv Sena in the state are supporting the locals.
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Fisher people
Forms of mobilization:Blockades
Boycotts of official procedures/non-participation in official processes
Development of a network/collective action
Street protest/marches
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Other Environmental impacts
Other Environmental impactsThe entire Konkan belt is ecologically sensitive and is home to one of a large varieties of flora and fauna apart from animal, bird and reptile species and is tagged as one of the most fragile ecological zones in the world. The project would destroy this.
Socio-economical ImpactsPotential: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusStopped
Conflict outcome / response:Project cancelled
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Yes
Briefly explain:It is important to note that the projected has been cancelled in Ratnagiri and is being shifted. The probable location is still being finalised. This can be seen as justice to Nanar but the project continues to have potential threat to the next location.
Sources & Materials

3. Maharashtra to move planned Ratnagiri refinery after farmers protest
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4. Ratnagiri refinery project: 4-member panel tasked with winning over opponents
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5. Ratnagiri Refinery: Dharmendra Pradhan says open to offer majority stake
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6. Adnoc ties up with Aramco for refinery in Ratnagiri
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2. Local protests hit world's largest refinery project by oil PSUs
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9. Residents Protest Against Ratnagiri Oil Refinery, Say It Will Not be Eco-Friendly
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8. Protests against Ratnagiri refinery to gain steam
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10. Abu Dhabi oil giant signs pact to take stake in Ratnagiri refinery project
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12. Farmers from Konkan Region March to Mumbai to Oppose Refinery Project
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14. Indian state to move planned Saudi Aramco refinery after farmers protest
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11. Saudi-backed Nanar Refinery Project in Maharashtra to Be Relocated
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7. Land for Ratnagiri refinery should be available by 2019: B Ashok, Ratnagiri Refinery CEO
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1. Thousands in Maharashtra are opposing what could be ‘globe’s largest’ oil refinery
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13. Maharashtra: Nanar Refinery project officially scrapped as govt denotifies acquired land
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Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Sheetal Ghurav from Ratnagiri - Shot by Ruchira Petkar/ The Wire
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Other documents

Protesters not allowing land survey procedure (credits - Newsclick)
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Meta information
Contributor:Arpita Lulla, Kalpavriksh, [email protected]
Last update18/08/2019
Conflict ID:4044
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