Sagarmala ports initiative and SEZs, the case of Andhra Pradesh, India

A coast and ocean grabbing project that will take away the livelihood of fishworkers, farmers and others near the coasts. Massive industrialization, ecological destruction.


Sagarmala is a set of projects for building the coast of India at the cost of the people's needs and in the name of economic development.

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Basic Data
NameSagarmala ports initiative and SEZs, the case of Andhra Pradesh, India
ProvinceAndhra Pradesh
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Water access rights and entitlements
Land acquisition conflicts
Ports and airport projects
Specific CommoditiesCrude oil
Natural Gas
Chemical products
Industrial waste
Transport services
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe Andhra Pradesh Government is drawing up plans to make the most of Sagarmala project, identifying 90 projects entailing investment of Rs. 1,30,762 crores. (2) Chief Minister N. Chandrababu Naidu has constituted a 33-member committee to monitor the implementation of these projects. Visakhapatnam Port Trust will be the nodal agency for the implementation of inland waterways projects. Two industrial corridors and five SEZs will be part of the project.

The SEZs, Coastal Economic Zones, are a special focus in Andhra Pradesh. The state has 1 major port: Vishakhapatnam with ~14 other minor ports. VCIC North and VCIC Central are identified as CEZs which again comprises of many SEZs and industrial complexes.

The CEZs has also engulfed the agrarian districts like Srikakulum and Vizianagaram and put to the task of port led industrial development. They even went ahead with shifting fishing harbors and developing new one which clearly shows their intention of privatization or consolidating small fish harbor into big one and hand that over to corporate and industries. Construction of tourism passenger jetty at different locations are planned which doesn’t support the traditional livelihood of Fishworkers living in the areas.

VCIC Central CEZ Districts influence Chitoor and Nellore [10% of state population]. This CEZ overlaps two industrial node coming up under two industrial corridors - Srikalahasti-Yerpedu node of Vishakhapatnam Chennai Industrial Corridor and Krishnapatnam node in Nellore district of Chennai Bengaluru industrial corridor. The VCIC central CEZ comprises of 5 operational manufacturing based SEZs in the region earmarked for footwear, textile and apparel, leather sector, and multi products. Additionally there are around 20 industrial complexes developed by APIIC.

Port modernisation and connectivity projects:

Upgradation of the hinterland road From Naidupeta (Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh) to Krishnagiri (in Tamil Nadu); Upgradation of the proposed NH67 from Bellary (Karnataka) to Krishnapatnam (Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh); Four-lane greenfield road to Krishnapatnam Port from Naidupeta (Andhra Pradesh); Upgradation of the existing R&B road from Chilakaru cross (NH16) to power plants; Development of 5 km greenfield road connecting north and south industrial cluster of Khandaleru Creek near Krishnapatnam Port; Upgradation of 24 km road to four lanes, connecting Nellore city to Krishnapatnam Port to NH 5 in SPSR Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh; Rail connectivity between Krishnapatnam and Venkatachalam; Rail connectivity between Krishnapatnam and Obulavaripalle; Freezing and fish segregating facilities for tuna and other catch near Krishnapatnam Port; Rail connectivity to south port of Krishnapatnam Port from Guduru (26 km); Development of one passenger jetty at Krishnapatnam Port for tourism; Development of Pulicat Lake Island in SPS Nellore District as tourist spot

The VCIC Central CEZ will come up in phased manner where in phase 1, Krishnapatnam will be the target district and in phase 2, Chitoor and Nellore will be targeted.


With coming coastal economic zones, the eviction of people from the coastal area will increase in the name of either conservation, tourism or industrialization depriving the communities from the access to the coast for their basic fundamental right of life and livelihood.
Level of Investment (in USD)25,000,000,000
Type of PopulationSemi-urban
Start Date01/01/2016
Company Names or State EnterprisesVisakhapatnam Port Trust from India
Relevant government actorsAndhra Pradesh Govt and Central Govt of India
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersNational Alliance of People's Movements

National Fish Workers Forum (NFF)
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)LOW (some local organising)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Local ejos
Landless peasants
Local government/political parties
Social movements
Trade unions
Local scientists/professionals
Fisher people
Forms of MobilizationCreation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
November 21, 2016. World Fisheries Day is observed, it will see a massive rally of fisher people from different parts of the country at Delhi’s Jantar Mantar, against the ‘‘Ocean Grabbing’ policies of the Modi regime. National security too was a concern as many of these ports are being privatized and run the risk of being security threats, the forums said
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Desertification/Drought, Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Waste overflow, Oil spills, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Other Environmental impacts
Health ImpactsPotential: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Occupational disease and accidents, Other environmental related diseases
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Land dispossession
Potential: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights, Other socio-economic impacts
Project StatusPlanned (decision to go ahead eg EIA undertaken, etc)
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseLarge investment plans approved
Do you consider this as a success?Not Sure
Why? Explain briefly.There is oppsition but it appears to be weak.
Sources and Materials

Sagarmala: Concept and implementation towards Blue Revolution published by Press Information Bureau, GoI, Cabinet
[click to view]


Sagarmala - National Perspective Plan - Executive Summary
[click to view]


Should the Sagarmala project be scrapped?
[click to view]

Sagarmala Project proposes 14 coastal economic zones across India
[click to view]

Drop Sagarmala project, it would lead to eco-devastation, displacement along Indian coast: Civil society meet
[click to view]

Sagarmala, industrial corridors to boost economy: Gadkari
[click to view]

Setback for Andhra Pradesh, Centre not to fund Sagaramala
[click to view]

Andhra sends coastal economic zone proposals worth Rs 1.30 lakh crore to Centre
[click to view]

Fishermen plan nationwide protest against Sagarmala project
[click to view]

Sagarmala Port Project is a Noose in the Neck of Coastal Communities, Fisher People Oppose Move
[click to view]

India to get six new mega ports under Ministry of Shipping's Sagarmala project
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State submits Rs. 4,000 cr. worth proposals under Sagarmala
[click to view]

Fishermen oppose Sagarmala project
[click to view]

(2) AP identifies 90 projects under Sagarmala
[click to view]

(1). Funds sanctioned for Sagarmala projects. MAR 10, 2017by GURDIP SINGH
[click to view]

Other Documents

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Meta Information
ContributorAmit Kumar, National Alliance of People's Movements
Last update10/07/2017