The Kichwa people of Sarayaku, who were appointed legal owners of their ancestral territory in 1992, strongly opposed the Block 23 oil exploitation project presented in 1996. They launched a campaign, supported by environmentalists and local associations, against the new extraction facilities to be built by General Company of Combustibles (CGC). Back in the 1930s, Shell settled in that very area triggering Sarayacu peoples resistance to oil extraction for the first time. In the following years, several oil companies tried to follow Shell in exploiting the Kichwa ancestral territories: U.S Company Western Amoco in 1970, ldela Arco Oriente in 1989, and Argentinean CGC in 1996. During the communication campaign about the oil exploitation project in 2001 with the communities, the Kichwa people from Sarayacu strongly expressed their opposition. However in 2002 the oil company started its explorations, coupled with the militarization of the territory. The Kichwa’s activism against the project was criminalized. Still Association of the Kichwa Peoples from Sarakayu together with the CEJIL and the CDES achieved international media attention when in 2003 they presented a petition to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (CIDH) denouncing the Ecuadorian State prejudice of the Kichwa people from Sarayacu. The CIDH finally ruled in favor of the Kichwa people in June 2012, recognizing that the Ecuadorian State violated the indigenous peoples’ right to prior consultation. The Government had to present public excuses. Since 2015 the Amazon blocks 74 and 75 are the new targets for oil exploitation, placing a new threat upon the Sarayacu’s territory integrity.