In the early 20th century exactly in the winter of 1911, a huge rockslide in the Pamir Mountains of southeastern Tajikistan completely blocked the Murgab River creating a huge "natural" dam creating a big hazard doiwnstream. That river tributary reaches to Amy Darya River Basin. Before that disaster, there was a village named Usoi and then the Landslide entirely buried that village. Now in most literatures, it is known as a Usoi Dam. That landslide has a total volume estimated at approximately 2 km3, with a maximum height above the original valley floor of 500-700m. By passing time a lake quickly formed behind the Usoi dam, rising at a rate of around 75m/yr during the first few years.
In most references it is referred by two names, one is the Usoi dam and another one is Sarez Lake. At the beginning, the name referred to the landslide that buried the Usoi village then it named after that village. When the level of water rose it drowned another village, Sarez, that was behind Usoi. After that, the second name and most widespread, Sarez Lake became most common.
It is said that Lake Sarez now has almost 70km length, its depth reaches up to 500m and around 17 km3 total volumes. The elevation of the surface excesses to 3200m above the sea level (asl), and it surrounded by peaks increasing to more than 6,000 m asl. At the moment, from the surface of the lake to the lowest point of the Usoi dam there are just 50m left. According to the observation centre in the Sarez Lake, every year average of 20cm/yr the water is increasing. The dam is considered the highest natural (or manmade), on the earth. In case of any tragic outpouring flood from Lake Sarez, it would damage the entire villages around the Amu Darya River basin and then it will reach the Aral Sea. The distance between Sarez Lake and the Aral Sea is over 2,000km. In this long space, approximately more than 5 million people are living, belonging to four Central Asian countries including Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. ,
According to the wide range of observation from national and international experts, the hazardsand risks can be divided into several classes.
a) Impact on Biodiversity
The variety of flood scenarios represents noteworthy hazards to biodiversity, land use, and geomorphological processes The Bartang valley has been investigated since 1882, and approximately 1200 herb species have been discovered and presented to science. Scholars from Pamir biological Institute informed that just Gorno Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast (GBAO) includes some 166 endemic plant species. The most important thing is that currently there are three Zapovednik Nature Reserves in Tajikistan, and two of them are in the direct flood path of the possible failure of the Usoi Dam. For instance, the Dashtidzhumsky mountain forest reserve on the bank of the Panj River occupies 53,400 ha. It includes pistachio, juniper, and maple forest, and provides habitat for key faunal species such as the Markhor Capra falcon, snow leopard, brown bear, and Persian otter. Unfortunately, if the Usoi dam floods, the major part of this natural reserve will be destroyed. 
b) Impact on regional residential areas.
There is not just a threat for Tajikistan residents but it is necessary to consider the potential regional consequence of a major flood. In Uzbekistan, Termez, on the Amu Darya River, is the most influenced major town that could be flooded in the worst-case scenario. A bit farther downstream across the five nations that would be affected by this natural disaster Sarez Lake flood scenario, significant pollution would result from it. One question is the awareness of the indigenous peoples living in the banks of Amu Darya River and support from the international organisations in terms of reduction of the Sarez Lake hazard. In the affected central Asia countries, every one of them has a certain historical, social, ethical and traditional values. The global society must consider that there are living various ethnic group with different languages and culture. Taking Pamir as an example, there are more than 5 different ethnic groups that every one of them has their certain valuable tradition and languages. It is worth preserving this social and cultural diversity. All the scientific and humanitarian investigation must take a holistic step toward the population structure, location, and well-being, as well as attitudes, of the people in regarding the Lake Sarez problem and people’s ability and willingness to respond to the hazard. 
c) Afghanistan Government protest due to the threat of Lake Sarez.
Among the central Asian countries, Afghanistan was the first country to raise the conflict on the regional scale. We report some arguments from the representative of the Minister of State for Disaster Management and Humanitarian Affairs of Afghanistan Wais Ahmad Barmak. whop said than an investigation by Afghan experts indicates that the spillway was a matter of great concern and Afghanistan is trying to take the necessary measures to avoid the possible dangerous outflow from the dam. In addition, he explained that: “The recent reports about the dam are a serious concern. We will, therefore, continue our efforts to address the problem. However, so far we don’t have more information about the state of the dam”. Afghanistan side pointed out that the statistic about Sarez Lake are frightful. According to the Afghan ministry of water and energy, Tajikistan’s Sarez Lake currently holds more than 16 billion cubic meters of water. The ministry warned that if the dam’s capacity was exceeded, the outflow will raise the level of water in the Amu River. Meanwhile, the office of the chief executive officer has called on vulnerable countries to coordinate to avoid possible threats from the dam.
They criticised that, there is not any benefit from this lake at all. “The Afghan government is in contact with aid groups to solve the problem,” the Chief Executive Abdullah Abdullah’s deputy spokesman Jawed Faisal said.
No country has benefited economically from the Sarez dam, but the ministry of water and energy has warned that more than five million people who are living around the Amu River will be affected if the dam collapsed.
It is said that not one of the countries located around the dam, has the capacity to evacuate people from the flood waters from the dam should a disaster occur. But there is no any response from Tajikistan as a host..