North Stream 2 (Severny Potok) Natural Gas Pipeline at Kurgalsky Reserve, Russia

The Kurgalsky reserve is one of the most valuable natural territories in north-west Russia. But the planned route of the Nord Stream 2 (Severny Potok) Natural Gas Pipeline cuts right through the Kurgalsky reserve.


The Nord Stream Natural Gas Pipeline was launched in November 2011. Its business model is to provide gas transportation capacity for the natural gas coming from western Russia for distribution into the European gas grid, with landfalls in Russia and Germany. The extension of The Nord Stream Pipeline, North Stream 2 (Severny Potok) Natural Gas Pipeline aims to be stretching along the Baltic Sea bottom from the Russian to the German coast by alike route. Its launch is planned for the end of 2019. For the landfall in Russia for the new pipeline, The Narva Bay and the Kolganpa cape were chosen as alternative routes. The published non-technical annotation of the gas pipeline project states that based on the results of environmental surveys and evaluation of both routes, the option of the Narva Bay, which affects the Kurgalsky Nature Reserve was considered preferable. The company's arguments are simple: the Narva Bay option is shorter, more convenient and, apparently, cheaper.

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Basic Data
NameNorth Stream 2 (Severny Potok) Natural Gas Pipeline at Kurgalsky Reserve, Russia
CountryRussian Federation
ProvinceLeningrad Oblast
SiteKurgalsky Natural Reserve, Kingiseppsky District
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)
Wetlands and coastal zone management
Specific CommoditiesNatural Gas
Ecosystem Services
Biological resources
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe Nord Stream Natural Gas Pipeline was launched in November 2011. The Nord Stream twin pipeline system through the Baltic Sea runs from Vyborg, Russia to Lubmin near Greifswald, Germany. The pipelines were built and are operated by Nord Stream AG. The Nord Stream route crosses the Exclusive Economic Zones of Russia, Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Germany, as well as the territorial waters of Russia, Denmark, and Germany. The two 1,224-kilometre offshore pipelines are the most direct connection between the gas reserves in Russia and energy markets in the European Union. Combined, the twin pipelines have the capacity to transport a combined total of 55 billion cubic metres (bcm) of gas a year to businesses and households in the EU for at least 50 years.

In June 2015, an agreement to build two additional lines was signed between Gazprom, Royal Dutch Shell, E.ON, OMV, and Engie. As the creation of a joint venture was blocked by Poland, on 24 April 2017, Uniper, Wintershall, Engie, OMV and Royal Dutch Shell signed a financing agreement with Nord Stream 2 AG, a subsidiary of Gazprom responsible for the development of the Nord Stream 2 project. According to the agreement, each of five companies will provide €950 million, of which €285 million should have been paid in 2017. The loan from the five companies will cover 50% of the project costs of €9.5 billion. The rest would be financed by Gazprom which remains the sole shareholder of Nord Stream 2 AG. Although the pipeline has received no formal approvals from Denmark and Finland, it is scheduled to become operational in 2019–2020. The new line is planned to double the system’s capacity to 110 billion cubic meters.

The route of additional lines would mainly follow the route of existing lines, except in the Russian onshore and offshore sections. In Russia, 866 kilometres (538 mi) of new pipeline and three compressor stations would be built, and five existing compressor stations would be expanded for feeding Nord Stream 2. Nord Stream 2 will start at the Slavyanskaya compressor station near Ust-Luga port, located 2.8 kilometres (1.7 mi) south-east of the village of Bolshoye Kuzyomkino (Narvusi) in the Kingiseppsky District of the Leningrad Oblast, in the historical Ingria close to the Estonian border. Its landfall would be at the Kurgalsky Peninsula on the shore of Narva Bay.
Project Area (in hectares)60,000
Level of Investment (in USD)11,000,000,000
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Populationsmall communities (population unknown)
Start Date06/2015
Company Names or State EnterprisesOMV (OMV) from Austria - Financial Investor
Royal Dutch Shell (Shell) from Netherlands
Uniper (Uniper) from Germany
Wintershall Holding GmbH (Wintershall) from Germany - Financial Investor
Engie (ENGIE) from France
Nord Stream 2 AG (Nord Stream 2) from Switzerland - Project company
Gazprom (Gazprom) from Russian Federation - Parent Company
Relevant government actorsMinistry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersGreenpeace

Green World


Coalition Green Baltic

Uusimaa Regional Environment Centre

Monitoring BTS

International Union for Conservation of Nature

Green World

Friends of the Baltic

Baltic Fund for Nature
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)LOW (some local organising)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingInternational ejos
Local ejos
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of MobilizationDevelopment of alternative proposals
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Objections to the EIA
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Appeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity)
OtherEnormous impact on wildlife, if built. Impact on Ramsar area.
Socio-economic ImpactsPotential: Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusUnder construction
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseApplication of existing regulations
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
Development of Alternatives- Coalition Green Baltic requires that EIA on Nord Stream 2 Project addresses holistic and cumulative impacts on the Baltic Sea ecosystem

- While the project consortium aims to route the link through the Finnish economic zone of the Baltic Sea, environmentalists have been campaigning for it to consider the more southern route, saying the sea bed is flatter and would need less work and therefore less disruption to waste littered on the sea bed. The Environmental Ministery of Finland also insists that the consortium conducts a thorough environmental impact study of an alternative, southern route for its planned gas pipeline under the Baltic Sea.
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.Construction of theproject continues.
Sources and Materials

Project Website
[click to view]

Russian gas in the EU: How consumers threaten an international nature reserve
[click to view]

Finland tells Nord Stream to study alternative routes
[click to view]

[click to view]

Nord Stream 2 and Environmental NGOs Discuss Route Selection in Russia
[click to view]

Russian ecologists say Nord Stream 2 damages precious refuge
[click to view]

Media Links

Call Letter of Coalition Green Baltic for participation to Greenpeace Petition
[click to view]

Greenpeace Petition: Save the Kurgalsky Reserve
[click to view]

Gazprom wants to build a gas pipeline through a unique nature reserve

by Irina Kozlovskikh .5 December 2017
[click to view]

Other Documents

Project Map from Greenpeace Russland
[click to view]

Save the Kurgalsky Reserve - Greenpeace Petition Banner
[click to view]

Other Comments
Meta Information
ContributorAyşe Ceren Sarı, Boğaziçi University, [email protected]
Last update13/08/2018