Shwe gas field and pipeline, Myanmar

Criminalisation and repression of activists in Myanmar campaigning against the Shwe gas and oil pipeline to China.


The Shwe gas field is an offshore natural gas field located in the Bay of Bengal, in the Andaman Sea. The gas field was discovered in 2004, originally developed by South Korea's Daewoo International and production began in 2013. In August 2000, Daewoo signed a production sharing contract with Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) to explore Burma's sea areas and market any underwater gas reserves found.

See more...
Basic Data
NameShwe gas field and pipeline, Myanmar
ProvinceBay of Bengal, Andaman Sea
SiteShwe offshore gas field
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Oil and gas exploration and extraction
Ports and airport projects
Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)
Oil and gas refining
Aquaculture and fisheries
Specific CommoditiesCrude oil
Natural Gas
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe proven reserves of the Shwe gas field are about 263 cubic kilometers.

CNPC's gas pipeline is operational and moving 12 billion cubic meters of natural gas per year. Its oil pipeline is soon to be completed and will be transporting up to 22 million tons of crude oil annually.

The estimated annual income for each of the pipelines is an estimated 900 million USD.
Project Area (in hectares)Approx. 250,000 hectares
Level of Investment (in USD) Estimated: 3,730,000,000 USD
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population 22 affected townships
Start Date01/01/2011
Company Names or State EnterprisesDaewoo International from Republic of Korea
Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) (MOGE) from Myanmar
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) Videsh
Korean Gas Corporation from Republic of Korea
China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC ) from China
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersEarthRights International:

Shwe Gas Movement:

Human Rights Watch:
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)LOW (some local organising)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
International ejos
Local ejos
Ethnically/racially discriminated groups
Fisher people
Forms of MobilizationInvolvement of national and international NGOs
Objections to the EIA
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage)
Potential: Oil spills, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality
Health ImpactsVisible: Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..)
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Loss of livelihood, Increase in violence and crime, Militarization and increased police presence, Other socio-economic impacts
OtherIn May 2013, two employees of a CNPC subcontractor were shot and killed on a project site related to the Shwe Gas Project.
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCorruption
Criminalization of activists
Violent targeting of activists
Application of existing regulations
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.Local residents whose land was confiscated were mostly left unheard and did not receive any response or compensation from the companies or its subcontractors involved in the project. The project is currently in operation.
Sources and Materials

Myanmar 2011 Law Relating to Peaceful Assembly and Peaceful Procession


Shwe Gas Movement (2011), SOLD OUT, Launch of China pipeline project unleashes abuse across Burma, published in September 2011
[click to view]

Business & Human Rights Resource Centre (2013), Shwe gas & Myanmar-China oil transport projects (Apr-Jun 2013)
[click to view]

Shwe Gas Movement (2013), Drawing the Line, The Case Against China's Shwe Gas Project, For Better Extractive Industries in Burma, Report, September 2013
[click to view]


Six charged over China-Burma pipeline protests, REFworld, Radio Free Asia, 19 April 2013,
[click to view]

CNPC's Dreams of Pipelines from Myanmar All Blocked Up, by Huang Kaixi, Caixin Online, 18 June 2013,
[click to view]

Myanmar activists jailed for protesting against Chinese-led oil and gas project, by Aung Hla Tun, Thomson Reuters Foundation, 27 September 2013,
[click to view]

Shwe Natural Gas Project, Myanmar,, 2014
[click to view]

Hundreds Protest Pipeline in Burma's Rakhine State, by Min Thein Aung and Zin Mar Win, RFA Burmese Service, 18 April 2013,
[click to view]

Burma: China-Led Oil, Gas Projects Spark Arrests, HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH (HRW), 11 May 2013,
[click to view]

Fishermen Protest Against Kyaukphyu Seaport
[click to view]

Other Documents

Map showing the route to be followed by the China-Burma oil and gas pipelines. (Image: Shwe Gas Movement)
[click to view]

Fishermen aboard 120 boats protested along the Thanzit River against the Maday Island deep seaport Source: Tun Kyi/ Facebook in
[click to view]

Meta Information
Last update11/03/2019