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SOCAPALM conflicts, Cameroon

One of the most (in)famous cases of high-profile slapp suits against journalists daring to explain social and environmental injustices in rubber and palm oil plantations and other business in the 'Françafrique'.


The SOCAPALM plantations have been a source of massive socio-ecological problems and resistance. The plantations (then state-run) were established in 1968 on confiscated land customarily belonging to Bagyeli and Bantu populations. In 2000, the plantations were privatized and they belong today to the Luxembourgian holding Socfin which is linked to the Bolloré group, a massive French conglomerate led by Vincent Bolloré. The Bolloré group is one of the key players of 'Françafrique'.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:SOCAPALM conflicts, Cameroon
State or province:Provinces of Littoral and South
Location of conflict:6 sites: Dibombari, Mbongo, Mbambou, Eséka, Edéa and Kienké
Accuracy of locationMEDIUM (Regional level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture, Fisheries and Livestock Management)
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Plantation conflicts (incl. Pulp
Agro-fuels and biomass energy plants
Land acquisition conflicts
Specific commodities:Rubber
Palm oil
Project Details and Actors
Project details

The SOCAPALM (Société Camerounaise de Palmeraies) is an agro-industrial company operating in Cameroon. It is the largest palm oil company in the country, managing plantations on some 78,529 hectares in Mbongo, Dibombari, Mbambou, Edéa, Kienke and Eséka, 32,901 hectares directly exploited and about 20,000 hectares indirectly exploited via family plantations.

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Project area:80,000
Type of populationRural
Start of the conflict:2000
Company names or state enterprises:Socfin group (La Société Financière des Caoutchoucs) (Socfin) from Luxembourg - The Socfin group owns the SOCAPALM plantations
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:- SYNAPARCAM (Synergie Nationale des Paysans et Riverains du Cameroun):
- FOCARFE (Fondation Camerounaise d'Actions rationalisées et de Formation sur l'Environnement):
- ActionAid France:
- Attac France:
- Bastamag:
- Greenpeace France:
- Mediapart:
- Ritimo:
- Sherpa:
- Survie:
- ReAct:
- Reporters sans frontières:
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityLOW (some local organising)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Industrial workers
International ejos
Local ejos
Trade unions
Ethnically/racially discriminated groups
Forms of mobilization:Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Objections to the EIA
Official complaint letters and petitions
Property damage/arson
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Waste overflow, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality
Health ImpactsVisible: Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..), Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution, Occupational disease and accidents, Infectious diseases
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Land dispossession
Potential: Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Violations of human rights
Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Environmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area
Court decision (undecided)
Under negotiation
Violent targeting of activists
Proposal and development of alternatives:Neighboring populations have essentially two basic demands: (1) a compensation in any form - monetary, village plantations or infrastructure (roads, schools, etc.) - for the destruction of what they regard as their forest; and (2) the non-extension of the SOCAPALM, i.e. the preservation of the remaining fields, agro-forests and forests. It is basically for these goals that local Bantu villagers ask for their presence in the management board of the company.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:The company claims to have recently improved the social and environmental situation but local people continue to protest (as of 2018)
Sources & Materials
References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

"Cameroon: Refuting ten lies about SOCAPALM plantations" (2010): Replies to typical arguments in favor of the SOCAPALM (only in French)
[click to view]

"Résistances contre deux géants industriels en forêt tropicale" (2008): Overview of the situation, published by the WRM (only in French)
[click to view]

"L’impact de la privatisation de la SOCAPALM sur les communautés et l’environnement au Cameroun: Exposé de situation" (2010): Overview of the situation, with the participation of local and national NGOs (only in French)
[click to view]

"We will not be silenced by Bolloré's SLAPP lawsuits!" (25 January 2018): Useful list of all the Bolloré lawsuits against journalists and NGOs
[click to view]

Huffpost 24 April 2018. Vincent Bolloré en garde à vue pour des soupçons de corruption en Afrique.
[click to view]

GRAIN (a small international non-profit organisation that works to support small farmers and social movements, based in Barcelona) . We will not be silenced by Bolloré's SLAPP lawsuits! Civil society organisations, media outlets, journalists and NGOs | 25 enero 2018
[click to view]

“Bolloré y sus practicas mafiosas en África, ¿habrá justicia?”. Chema Caballero. Mundo Negro, 4 mayo 2018. Vicent Bolloré fue detenido por la policía francesa y trasladado a las instalaciones de la fiscalía nacional el 24 de abril 2018, acusado de sobornos a funcionarios públicos extranjeros.
[click to view]

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

"Procès Bolloré, 2e round : le 'Germinal des tropiques'" (4 April 2018): Useful overview article (only in French)
[click to view]

"Il a témoigné contre Bolloré: 'Bien sûr que je suis inquiet'" (5 April 2018): Interview of a local EJO activist (only in French)
[click to view]

Other documents

Some maps of the SOCAPALM
[click to view]

Other comments:Many sources are available. This is only a few landmark publications.
Meta information
Contributor:J.-F. Gerber
Last update18/08/2019
Conflict ID:3658
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